Using EC2, its Pitfalls and How to Avoid them. (Technology Quick Guides)

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To prevent this behavior, said instances will need to be terminated or the underlying issue fixed File uploads are capped at 10MB for most default eb configurations - update nginx config to change If you edit. They can also be Route 53 aliases, which are easier to change and manage. But in some situations, you do need to manage and fix IP addresses of EC2 instances, for example if a customer needs a fixed IP. These situations require elastic IPs.

Elastic IPs are limited to 5 per account. If an Elastic IP is not attached to an active resource there is a small hourly fee. They have a small cost when not in use, which is a mechanism to prevent people from squatting on excessive numbers of IP addresses. Though when allocating at once, you may get lucky and have some be part of the same CIDR block. It generally takes hours to fulfill a retrieval request. AWS has not officially revealed the storage media used by Glacier; it may be low-spin hard drives or even tapes.

There is also a 32k storage overhead per file. If you have large numbers of S3 objects of relatively small size, it will take time to reach a break-even point initial archiving cost versus lower storage pricing. RDS offers out of the box support for high availability and failover for your databases.

If necessary, this can be changed to a different timezone. For example, if you are using Postgres, check the list of supported features and extensions. If the features you need aren't supported by RDS, you'll have to deploy your database yourself. If a backup is running at the same time, your import can take a considerably longer time than you would have expected. Automated backups of multi-AZ instances run off the backup instance to reduce latency spikes on the primary.

Aurora has increased availability and is the next-generation solution. Ensure you lock and flush each MyISAM table before executing a snapshot or backup operation to ensure consistency. Supports a relatively large range of native extensions. Supports connections over SSL. Supports multi A-Z and Point-in-time recovery. Some major features are delayed compared to open source PostgreSQL.

There are settings that cannot be changed and most of the settings that can change can only be changed using database parameter groups. Be sure to verify that all the extensions you need are available. If you are using an extension not listed there, you will need to come up with a work around, or deploy your own database in EC2.

Many Postgres utilities and maintenance items expect command line access, that can usually be satisfied by using an external ec2 server. If you need more space, you must restore your database on a new instance with larger storage. Notable new features include: Log-structured storage instead of B-trees to improve write performance. Out-of-process buffer pool so that databases instances can be restarted without clearing the buffer pool. The underlying physical storage is a specialized SSD array that automatically maintains 6 copies of your data across 3 AZs. Aurora read replicas share the storage layer with the write master which significantly reduces replica lag, eliminates the need for the master to write and distribute the binary log for replication, and allows for zero-data-loss failovers from the master to a replica.

The master and all the read replicas that share storage are known collectively as an Aurora cluster. Read replicas can span up to 5 regions. For example, Aurora servers have been tested to produce increasing performance on some OLTP workloads with up to 5, connections. Aurora scales well with multiple CPUs and may require a large instance class for optimal performance. For low-downtime migrations from other MySQL-compatible databases, you can set up an Aurora instance as a replica of your existing database. If none of those methods are options, Amazon offers a fee-based data migration service.

This requires binary logging to be enabled and is not as performant as native Aurora replication. Because Aurora read replicas are the equivalent of a multi-AZ backup and they can be configured as zero-data-loss failover targets, there are fewer scenarios in which the creation of a multi-AZ Aurora instance is required.

It is missing most 5. Currently based on PostgreSQL 9. Higher throughput up to 3x with similar hardware. Automatic storage scale in 10GB increments up to 64TB. Low latency read replicas that share the storage layer with the master which significantly reduces replica lag. Point in time recovery. Fast database snapshots.

Patching and bug fixing is separate from open source PostgreSQL. It supports both the Memcached and Redis open source in-memory cache software and exposes them both using their native access APIs. The main benefit is that AWS takes care of running, patching and optimizing the cache nodes for you, so you just need to launch a cluster and configure its endpoint in your application, while AWS will take of most of the operational work of running the cache nodes.

ElastiCache Tips Choose the engine , clustering configuration and instance type carefully based on your application needs. The documentation explains in detail the pros, cons and limitations of each engine in order to help you choose the best fit for your application. The simplicity of Memcached allows it to be slightly faster and allows it to scale out if needed, but Redis has more features which you may use in your application.

For Memcached AWS provides enhanced SDKs for certain programming languages which implement auto-discovery , a feature not available in the normal memcached client libraries. ElastiCache Gotchas and Limitations Since in some cases changing the cache clusters may have some restrictions, like for scaling purposes, it may become a problem if they were launched using CloudFormation in a stack that also contains other resources and you really need to change the cache. In order to avoid getting your CloudFormation stacks in a non-updateable state, it is recommended to launch ElastiCache clusters just like any other resource with similar constraints in dedicated stacks which can be replaced entirely with new stacks having the desired configuration.

DynamoDB is priced on a combination of throughput and storage. If you tightly couple your application to its API and featureset, it will take significant effort to replace. The most commonly used alternative to DynamoDB is Cassandra. DynamoDB Streams provides an ordered stream of changes to a table. Use it to replicate, back up, or drive events off of data DynamoDB can be used as a simple locking service. DynamoDB indexing can include primary keys , which can either be a single-attribute hash key or a composite hash-key range.

You can also query non-primary key attributes using secondary indexes. Data Types: DynamoDB supports three data types — number , string , and binary — in both scalar and multi-valued sets. Later, if the capacity is reduced, the capacity for each partition is also reduced but the total number of partitions is not, leaving less capacity for each partition. This leaves the table in a state where it much easier for hotspots to overwhelm individual partitions.

A global secondary index together with down sampling timestamps can be a possible solution as explained here. The most common work-around is to use a substitute value instead of leaving the field empty. See the Containers and AWS section for more context on containers. ECS is growing in adoption, especially for companies that embrace microservices.

Using Docker may change the way your services are deployed within EC2 or Elastic Beanstalk, but it does not radically change how most other services are used. Those can also be used to address a containerized service. When using an ALB you do not need to handle port contention i. Use awslogs for CloudWatch make sure a group is made for the logs first. Drivers such as fluentd are not enabled by default. This blog from Convox and commentary lists a number of common challenges with ECS as of early It is possible to optimize disk clean up on ECS.

By default, the unused containers are deleted after 3 hours and the unused images after 30 minutes. More information on optimizing ECS disk cleanup. It is not a replacement for ECS directly but is in response to the large market dominance of Kubernetes. EKS does not launch EC2 nodes and would have to be configured and setup either manually or via Cloudformation or other automation solution EKS management is done through a utility called kubectl, and with Kube configuration files. This is the simplest way to install kubectl and the assocated iam authenticator plugin Multiple clusters can be supported by using different kubeconfig files EKS Alternatives and Lock-in ECS Amazon's native Container Scheduled platform released in If you don't utilize containers today and are looking to get started, ECS is an excellent product.

Kubernetes : Extensive container platform. Proper care and maintenance should be applied to ensure IP exhaustion does not occur There is currently no integrated monitoring in Cloudwatch for EKS pods or services, you will need to deploy a monitoring system that supports kubernetes such as Prometheus. Using cluster-autoscaler can be useful for scaling based on Node resource usage and unschedulable Pods. Prometheus is a very popular monitoring solution for K8s, metrics and alerts can be used to send events to Lambda, SQS or other solutions to take autoscaling actions. To evaluate both solutions based on potential costs, refer to pricing for EC2 and Fargate.

Support for EKS was originally planned for , but has yet to launch. After a Fargate task stops, the storage is deleted. Lambda Tips The idea behind 'serverless' is that users don't manage provisioning, scaling, or maintenance of the physical machines that host their application code. With Lambda, the machine that actually executes the user-defined function is abstracted as a 'container'. When defining a Lambda function, users are able to declare the amount of memory available to the function, which directly affects the physical hardware specification of the Lambda container.

Changing the amount of memory available to your Lambda functions also affects the amount of CPU power available to it. While AWS does not offer hard guarantees around container reuse, in general it can be expected that an unaltered Lambda function will reuse a warm previously used container if called shortly after another invocation. Users can use this as a way to optimize their functions by smartly caching application data on initialization.

A Lambda that hasn't been invoked in some time may not have any warm containers left. In this case, the Lambda system will have to load and initialize the Lambda code in a 'cold start' scenario, which can add significant latency to Lambda invocations. There are a few strategies to avoiding or mitigating cold starts, including keeping containers warm by periodic triggering and favoring lightweight runtimes such as Node as opposed to Java.

X-Ray can help users diagnose Lambda issues by offering in-depth analysis of their Lambda's execution flow. This is especially useful when investigating issues calling other AWS services as X-Ray gives you a detailed and easy-to-parse visualization of the call graph.

Using timed CloudWatch events , users can use Lambda to run periodic jobs in a cron-like manner. More on serverless: Martin Fowler's thoughts. Serverless , one of the most popular frameworks for building serverless applications using AWS Lambda and other serverless compute options. Other helpful frameworks. Several tools are available to make this easier, including the officially supported SAM Local.

One option is to avoid Lambda versioning by abstracting your deployment workflow outside of Lambda. One way this can be accomplished is by deploying your application in successive stages, with a distinct AWS account per stage, where each account only needs to be aware of the latest version, and rollbacks and updates are handled by external tooling.

Cannot have overlapping suffixes in two rules if the prefixes are overlapping for the same event type. Please contact Lambda customer support. If the issue persists, deleting and recreating your trigger may help. A 50 MB limit on the compressed. Quite a few code samples here; as usual, not guaranteed tested. Caveat Emptor. There are no built-in mechanisms to have a single domain name migrate from one API gateway to another one.

So it may be necessary to build an additional layer in front even another API Gateway to allow smooth migration from one deployment to another. Tyk is an open-source API gateway implemented in Go and available in the cloud, on-premises or hybrid. This allows you to describe your API in a language-agnostic way and use various tools to generate code supporting your API.

API Gateway integrates with CloudWatch out-of-the-box, allowing for easy logging of requests and responses. Note that if your request or response are too large, CloudWatch will truncate the log. You can later refer to these request IDs in CloudWatch for easier tracing and debugging. For most use-cases, Cognito is the easiest and simplest way to authenticate users. Although you can roll your own solution using a custom authorizer , which is basically a Lambda you define that determines if a request is acceptable or not.

Depending on your use-case, this can often lead to a much simpler API structure and smoother client experience. RPC-style APIs are particularly useful when designing services that sit deeper in the stack and don't serve content directly to users. This is probably a good thing. It is a service that is deployed in a single region but comes with a global endpoint that is served from AWS edge locations similar to a CloudFront distribution.

More in this forum post. Unlike some limits, these timeouts can't be increased.

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When this happens, you may see a message in the CloudWatch logs for the request that includes the message: Execution failed due to an internal error. One possible reason for this error is that even though your backend server is up and running, it may be doing something outside of the HTTP specification like not sending well-formed chunked messages. API Gateway will also not appear as a node in your service map. More here. The resulting Swagger template is often incomplete and doesn't integrate well with the Swagger extensions for things such as CORS.

Unfortunately, API Gateway is terrible about notifying the user when changes are staged for deployment and what changes require deployment. If you've changed something about your API and it's not taking effect, there's a decent chance you just need to deploy it. In particular, when deploying an API Gateway as part of a CloudFormation stack, changes will not automatically deploy unless the deployment resource itself was changed.

You can change work around this by always changing the deployment resource on a CloudFormation update, or running a custom resource that ensures the deployment is made. Step Functions Tips A variety of structures are supported including branching, parallel operations and waits Tasks represent the real work nodes and are frequently Lambda functions, but can be Activities which are externally driven tasks implemented any way you like. State machines have data that "flows" through the steps and can be modified and added to as the state machine executes. It's best if your tasks are idempotent, in part because you may want to re-run the state machine with the same input data during debugging The AWS Console facilitates your examining the execution state at various steps.

The console lets you do this with a few steps: select the "input" tab from the failed execution copy the input data JSON select the state machine name in the breadcrumbs start a new execution, pasting the input data you copied previously Step Functions Gotchas and Limitations Step Functions are free tier eligible up to an initial transitions per month. You can have many, simultaneous, executions, but be aware of lambda throttling limits.

This has been per-account, pre-region, but recently became settable per-lambda. Step Function executions are limited to 25, events. Each step creates multiple events. This means that iterating a loop using Lambda is limited to an iteration count of around before needing to continue as a new execution. Route 53 Alternatives and Lock-In Historically, AWS was slow to penetrate the DNS market as it is often driven by perceived reliability and long-term vendor relationships but Route 53 has matured and is becoming the standard option for many companies.

The effect is the same, but in the latter case, externally, all a client sees is the target the record points to. Latency-based routing allows users around the globe to be automatically directed to the nearest AWS region where you are running, so that latency is reduced. Understand that domain registration and DNS management hosted zones are two separate Route 53 services.

Route 53 also offers to automatically create a hosted zone for DNS management, but you are not required do your DNS management in the same account or even in Route 53; you just need to create an NS record pointing to the servers assigned to your domain in Route One use case would be to put your domain registration very mission critical in a bastion account while managing the hosted zones within another account which is accessible by your applications.

CloudFormation is one of the major services underpinning AWS' infrastructure as code capabilities and is crucial in enabling repeatable and consistent deployments of infrastructure. Pulumi enables teams to define and deliver Cloud Native Infrastructure as Code on any cloud, with any language. From containers to serverless to Kubernetes to infrastructure. CloudFormation truly shines when making multiple deployments of the same stack to different accounts and regions. A common practice is to deploy stacks in successive stages ending in a production rollout. Avoid potentially time-consuming syntax errors from eating into your deployment time by running validate-template.

CloudFormation is sometimes slow to update what resources and new features on old services a user is able to define in the template. If you need to deploy a resource or feature that isn't supported by the template, CloudFormation allows running arbitrary code using Lambda on a stack create or update via custom resources. Custom resources make CloudFormation into a truly powerful tool, as you can do all sorts of neat things quite easily such as sanity tests, initial configuration of Dynamo tables or S3 buckets, cleaning up old CloudWatch logs, etc.

For writing Custom Resources in Java, cfnresponse comes in very handy. CloudFormation offers a visual template designer that can be useful when getting up to speed with the template syntax. By using StackSets , users can define and deploy an entire production application consisting of multiple stacks one service per stack in a single CloudFormation template. If you're developing a serverless application i. Without one, you can inadvertently delete live production resources, probably causing a severe outage.

The CloudFormation template reference is indispensable when discovering what is and isn't possible in a CloudFormation template. Troposphere is a Python library that makes it much easier to create CloudFormation templates. Troposphere attempts to support all resources types that can be described in CloudFormation templates. Built in error checking. If you are building different stacks with similar layers, it may be useful to build separate templates for each layer that you can reuse using AWS::CloudFormation::Stack.

Use stack parameters as much as you can, and resort to default parameter values. To use it effectively typically involved building additional tooling, including converting it to YAML, but now this is supported directly. These are the actual names assigned to the resources being created. Outputs can be returned from DescribeStack API calls, and get imported to other Stacks as part of the recent addition of cross-stack references.

You will not be able to delete the stack with the outputs until there are no importing stacks. CloudFormation can be set up to send SNS notifications upon state changes, enabling programmatic handling of situations where stacks fail to build, or simple email alerts so the appropriate people are informed. CloudFormation allows the use of conditionals when creating a stack.

Version control your CloudFormation templates! In the Cloud, an application is the combination of the code written and the infrastructure it runs on. By version controlling both , it is easy to roll back to known good states. Avoid naming your resources explicitly e. DynamoDB tables. When deploying multiple stacks to the same AWS account, these names can come into conflict, potentially slowing down your testing.

Prefer using resource references instead. For things that shouldn't ever be deleted, you can set an explicit DeletionPolicy on the resource that will prevent the resource from being deleted even if the CloudFormation stack itself is deleted. Error reporting is generally weak, and often times multiple observe-tweak-redeploy cycles are needed to get a working template. The internal state machine for all the varying states is extremely opaque. If at all possible, leave ALL resource management up to a CloudFormation template and only provide read-only access to the console.

Stacks in this state can be recovered using the continue-update-rollback command. This command can be initiated in the console or in the CLI. The --resources-to-skip parameter usable in the CLI can be useful if the continue-update-rollback command fails. New feature Drift Detection can be used to detect outside changes made to stack.

Many companies find alternate solutions, and many companies use it, but only with significant additional tooling. CloudFormer also hasn't been updated in ages as of Oct , doesn't support templatizing many new services, and won't fully define even existing services that have since been updated. There is a third-party version of the tool with more supported resources called Former2. Often there are other ways to accomplish the same goals, such as local scripts Boto, Bash, Ansible, etc.

This limit is readily exceeded even in moderately-sized CloudFormation stacks. One way to work around this limit is to include CloudFormation 'DependsOn' clauses to artificially chain resource creation. Some resources will leave behind traces in your AWS account even after deletion. VPC configurations can be trivial or extremely complex, depending on the extent of your network and security needs.

You get better visibility into and control of connection and connection attempts. You expose a smaller surface area for attack compared to exposing separate potentially authenticated services over the public internet. Another common pattern especially as deployments get larger, security or regulatory requirements get more stringent, or team sizes increase is to provide a bastion host behind a VPN through which all SSH connections need to transit.

It can either be installed using the official AMI , though you are limited to 2 concurrent users on the free license, or it can be installed using the openvpn package on linux. The linux package allows for unlimited concurrent users but the installation is less straightforward. This OpenVPN installer script can help you install it and add client keys easily.

If you have a security requirement to lockdown outbound traffic from your VPC you may want to use DNS filtering to control outbound traffic to other services. If lost or compromised, the VPN endpoint must be deleted and recreated. See the instructions for Replacing Compromised Credentials.

Consider alternatives if you're transferring many terabytes from private subnets to the internet. The data key contents are exposed to you so you can use it to encrypt and decrypt any size of data in your application layer. KMS does not store, manage or track data keys, you are responsible for this in your application. For example, you create an IAM policy that only allows a user to encrypt and decrypt with a specific key. A good motivation and overview is in this AWS presentation. The cryptographic details are in this AWS whitepaper. This blog from Convox demonstrates why and how to use KMS for encryption at rest.

Larger data requires generating and managing a data key in your application layer. You need to look find them in the raw. They can't be transferred to other regions. If you don't grant anything access to the key on creation, then you have to reach out to support to have the key policy reset Reduce the Risk of the Key Becoming Unmanagable.

Its primary use is improving latency for end users through accessing cacheable content by hosting it at over 60 global edge locations. CloudFront has grown to be a leader, but there are many alternatives that might better suit specific needs. This is a configurable setting, and is enabled by default on new CloudFront distributions. Clients must support TLS 1. You must enable this by specifying the allowed HTTP methods when you create the distribution. Interestingly, the cost of accepting uploaded data is usually less than for sending downloaded data.

If you need to support older browsers, you need to pay a few hundred dollars a month for dedicated IPs. Some other CDNs support this better. Everyone should use TLS nowadays if possible. An alternative to invalidation that is often easier to manage, and instant, is to configure the distribution to cache with query strings and then append unique query strings with versions onto assets that are updated frequently. This can be problematic for your origin if you run multiple sites switched with host headers. You can enable host header forwarding in the default cache behavior settings.

See ongoing discussion. Although connections from clients to CloudFront edge servers can make use of IPv6, connections to the origin server will continue to use IPv4. Use for more consistent predictable network performance guarantees 1 Gbps or 10 Gbps per link. Use to peer your colocation, corporate, or physical datacenter network with your VPC s. It is very widely used. It was built using ParAccel technology and exposes Postgres -compatible interfaces.

Also and not coincidentally the data warehouse market is highly fragmented. Redshift supports only 12 primitive data types. List of unsupported Postgres types It has a leader node and computation nodes the leader node distributes queries to the computation ones. Note that some functions can be executed only on the lead node. Major third-party BI tools support Redshift integration see Quora. Top 10 Performance Tuning Techniques for Amazon Redshift provides an excellent list of performance tuning techniques.

Amazon Redshift Utils contains useful utilities, scripts and views to simplify Redshift ops. VACUUM regularly following a significant number of deletes or updates to reclaim space and improve query performance. Redshift provides various column compression options to optimize the stored data size. AWS strongly encourages users to use automatic compression at the COPY stage, when Redshift uses a sample of the data being ingested to analyze the column compression options. However, automatic compression can only be applied to an empty table with no data.

Therefore, make sure the initial load batch is big enough to provide Redshift with a representative sample of the data the default sample size is , rows. Redshift uses columnar storage, hence it does not have indexing capabilities. You can, however, use distribution key and sortkey to improve performance. Redshift has two types of sort keys: compounding sort key and interleaved sort key. A compound sort key is made up of all columns listed in the sort key definition.

It is most useful when you have queries with operations using the prefix of the sortkey. An interleaved sort key on the other hand gives equal weight to each column or a subset of columns in the sort key. So if you don't know ahead of time which column s you want to choose for sorting and filtering, this is a much better choice than the compound key.

Here is an example using interleaved sort key. Use KEY to collocate join key columns for tables which are joined in queries. Use ALL to place the data in small-sized tables on all cluster nodes. Therefore, if you expect a high parallel load, consider replicating or if possible sharding your data across multiple clusters. Building multi-AZ clusters is not trivial. Here is an example using Kinesis.

A Beginner's Guide to MySQL Replication in Amazon EC2

The way Redshift tables are laid out on disk makes it impractical. For example, on a 16 node cluster an empty table with 20 columns will occupy MB on disk. WLM Workload Management tweaks help to some extent. However, if you need consistent read performance, consider having replica clusters at the extra cost and swap them during update. The resize operation can take hours depending on the dataset size.

In rare cases, the operation may also get stuck and you'll end up having a non-functional cluster. The safer approach is to create a new cluster from a snapshot, resize the new cluster and shut down the old one. See the full list here. They are, however, used by the query optimizer to generate query plans. See here for more information on defining constraints. So if your Redshift queries involving sort key s are slow, you might want to consider removing compression on a sort key.

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Redshift first copies the data to disk and then to the new table. Here is a good article on how to this for big tables. It reduces the management burden of setting up and maintaining these services yourself. However, the job workflows and much other tooling is AWS-specific. Migrating from EMR to your own clusters is possible but not always trivial. Be sure to check which versions are in use. If your data is small and performance matters, you may wish to consider alternatives, as this post illustrates.

AWS EC2 Tutorial : Amazon Elastic Compute Cloud

See the section on EC2 cost management , especially the tips there about Spot instances. This blog post has additional tips, but was written prior to the shift to per-second billing. While the log files tend to be relatively small, every Hadoop job, depending on the size, generates thousands of log files that can quickly add up to thousands of dollars on the AWS bill. A stream can have its shards programmatically increased or decreased based on a variety of metrics.

All records entered into a Kinesis Stream are assigned a unique sequence number as they are captured. The records in a Stream are ordered by this number, so any time-ordering is preserved. This page summarizes key terms and concepts for Kinesis Streams. It is possible to set up a Kafka cluster hosted on EC2 instances or any other VPS , however you are responsible for managing and maintaining both Zookeeper and the Kafka brokers in a highly available configuration. Confluent has a good blog post with their recommendations on how to do this here , which has links on the bottom to several other blogs they have written on the subject.

An application that efficiently uses Kinesis Streams will scale the number of shards up and down based on the required streaming capacity. Note there is no direct equivalent to this with Apache Kafka. NET programs to easily consume data from a Kinesis Stream. In order to start consuming data from a Stream, you only need to provide a config file to point at the correct Kinesis Stream, and functions for initialising the consumer, processing the records, and shutting down the consumer within the skeletons provided.

It is up to the developer to ensure that the program can handle doubly-processed records. It automatically shares the available Kinesis Shards across all the workers as equally as possible. If you are evenly distributing data across many shards, your read limit for the Stream will remain at 5 reads per second on aggregate, as each consuming application will need to check every single shard for new records.

This puts a hard limit on the number of different consuming applications possible per Stream for a given maximum read latency. For example, if you have 5 consuming applications reading data from one Stream with any number of shards, they cannot read with a latency of less than one second, as each of the 5 consumers will need to poll each shard every second, reaching the cap of 5 reads per second per shard.

This blog post further discusses the performance and limitations of Kinesis in production. Firehose will not attempt to deliver those documents and won't log any error. Device Farm offers a free trial for users who want to evaluate their service. Unmetered plans are useful in situations where active usage is expected from the beginning.

To minimize waiting time for device availability, one approach is to create several device pools with different devices, then randomly choose one of the unused device pools on every run. An actual list of supported frameworks and languages is presented on this page.

It may require developing specific tools or plugins to support specific requirements. An actual list of supported devices located here. It depends on several factors including device popularity. Usually, more modern devices see higher demand, thus the waiting time for them will be higher compared to relatively old devices. Each project in Mobile Hub has one backend made up of configurable features, plus one or more applications. Each feature uses one or two services to deliver a chunk of functionality.

Mobile Hub itself is free, but each of the services has its own pricing model. Check the GitHub issues. Clients are also called devices or things and include a wide variety of device types. AWS has a useful quick-start using the Console and a slide presentation on core topics. Device metadata can also be stored in IoT Thing Types. This aids in device metadata management by allowing for reuse of device description and configuration for more than one device.

Note that IoT Thing Types can be deprecated, but not changed — they are immutable. AWS IoT Certificates device authentication are the logical association of a unique certificate to the logical representation of a device. This association can be done in the Console. In addition, the public key of the certificate must be copied to the physical device. Wowza Player. Wowza workflows. Wowza Media Server. Start building.

Discover SDKs. General examples. Connect a source. Configure streams and transcoders. Stream playback. Manage security. Use metadata. Analyze data. Manage the API.

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Ultra low latency examples. About the SDK. Get the SDK. Customize your iOS app. Customize your Android app. API reference. Module examples. HTTP provider examples. Get started. Once you have set up your account and select or create your AMIs, you are ready to boot your instance.

You simply need to indicate how many instances you wish to launch. If Amazon EC2 is able to fulfill your request, RunInstances will return success, and we will start launching your instances. You can also programmatically terminate any number of your instances using the TerminateInstances API call. If you have a running instance using an Amazon EBS boot partition, you can also use the StopInstances API call to release the compute resources but preserve the data on the boot partition. In addition, you have the option to use Spot Instances to reduce your computing costs when you have flexibility in when your applications can run.

Read more about Spot Instances for a more detailed explanation on how Spot Instances work. If you prefer, you can also perform all these actions from the AWS Management Console or through the command line using our command line tools, which have been implemented with this web service API. When you launch your Amazon EC2 instances you have the ability to store your root device data on Amazon EBS or the local instance store. By using Amazon EBS, data on the root device will persist independently from the lifetime of the instance.

This enables you to stop and restart the instance at a subsequent time, which is similar to shutting down your laptop and restarting it when you need it again. Alternatively, the local instance store only persists during the life of the instance. This is an inexpensive way to launch instances where data is not stored to the root device. For example, some customers use this option to run large web sites where each instance is a clone to handle web traffic. It typically takes less than 10 minutes from the issue of the RunInstances call to the point where all requested instances begin their boot sequences.

This time depends on a number of factors including: the size of your AMI, the number of instances you are launching, and how recently you have launched that AMI. Images launched for the first time may take slightly longer to boot. Amazon EC2 allows you to set up and configure everything about your instances from your operating system up to your applications. An Amazon Machine Image AMI is simply a packaged-up environment that includes all the necessary bits to set up and boot your instance. Your AMIs are your unit of deployment. Once you create a custom AMI, you will need to bundle it.

If you are bundling an image with a boot partition on the instance store, then you will need to use the AMI Tools to upload it to Amazon S3. You can choose from a number of globally available AMIs that provide useful instances. For example, if you just want a simple Linux server, you can choose one of the standard Linux distribution AMIs. The RunInstances call that initiates execution of your application stack will return a set of DNS names, one for each system that is being booted.

This name can be used to access the system exactly as you would if it were in your own data center. You own that machine while your operating system stack is executing on it. Yes, Amazon EC2 is used jointly with Amazon S3 for instances with root devices backed by local instance storage.

By using Amazon S3, developers have access to the same highly scalable, reliable, fast, inexpensive data storage infrastructure that Amazon uses to run its own global network of web sites. Amazon EC2 provides cheap, scalable compute in the cloud while Amazon S3 allows users to store their data reliably. You are limited to running up to a total of 20 On-Demand instances across the instance family, purchasing 20 Reserved Instances, and requesting Spot Instances per your dynamic Spot limit per region.

New AWS accounts may start with limits that are lower than the limits described here. Certain instance types are further limited per region as follows:. Note that cc2. If you need more instances, complete the Amazon EC2 instance request form with your use case and your instance increase will be considered.

Limit increases are tied to the region they were requested for. In order to maintain the quality of Amazon EC2 addresses for sending email, we enforce default limits on the amount of email that can be sent from EC2 accounts. If you wish to send larger amounts of email from EC2, you can apply to have these limits removed from your account by filling out this form. Amazon EC2 provides a truly elastic computing environment.

Amazon EC2 enables you to increase or decrease capacity within minutes, not hours or days. You can commission one, hundreds or even thousands of server instances simultaneously. When you need more instances, you simply call RunInstances, and Amazon EC2 will typically set up your new instances in a matter of minutes. Of course, because this is all controlled with web service APIs, your application can automatically scale itself up and down depending on its needs. We are looking for ways to expand it to other platforms. Traditional hosting services generally provide a pre-configured resource for a fixed amount of time and at a predetermined cost.

Amazon EC2 differs fundamentally in the flexibility, control and significant cost savings it offers developers, allowing them to treat Amazon EC2 as their own personal data center with the benefit of Amazon. Using Amazon EC2, developers can choose not only to initiate or shut down instances at any time, they can completely customize the configuration of their instances to suit their needs — and change it at any time.

Most hosting services cater more towards groups of users with similar system requirements, and so offer limited ability to change these. Finally, with Amazon EC2 developers enjoy the benefit of paying only for their actual resource consumption — and at very low rates. Most hosting services require users to pay a fixed, up-front fee irrespective of their actual computing power used, and so users risk overbuying resources to compensate for the inability to quickly scale up resources within a short time frame.

Usage toward the vCPU-based limit is measured in terms of number of vCPUs virtual central processing units for the Amazon EC2 Instance Types to launch any combination of instance types that meet your application needs. Beginning September 24, , you can opt in to vCPU-based instance limits. Amazon EC2 will be migrating instance limits to vCPUs starting October 24, , and current count-based instance limits will not be available or supported after November 8, Starting September 24, , you can opt in to vCPU-based instance limits.

Through October 24, , you will have the ability to opt in and out of vCPU limits. During this time, you can choose which limits are used to manage usage and update your management tools and scripts to add support for the vCPU-based instance limits. The following table shows the number of vCPUs for each instance size. There are five vCPU-based instance limits, each defines the amount of capacity you can use of a given instance family. All usage of instances in a given family, regardless of generation, size, or configuration variant e. Yes, limits can change over time.

Amazon EC2 is constantly monitoring your usage within each region and your limits are raised automatically based on your use of EC2. Yes, the vCPU-based instance limits allow you to launch at least the same number of instances as count-based instance limits. Service Quotas also enables customers to use CloudWatch for configuring alarms to warn customers of approaching limits. In addition, you can continue to track and inspect your instance usage in Trusted Advisor and Limit Monitor. With the vCPU limits, we no longer have total instance limits governing the usage. Throughout the transition period September 24, through November 07, , you can choose to receive instance limits in instance counts or vCPUs using a single button at top right on the Limits page in the Amazon EC2 console.

Hence, during the transition window, your usage or any limit increases will be counted toward the count-based or vCPU-based instance limit depending on your account settings. Instructions for opting in or out of vCPU limits are provided in this documentation. If you decide to opt out during the transition period, your limits will revert back to the count-based instance limit values you had before you opted in.

If you do not opt in to the new vCPU limits during the transition period, you will automatically begin to see vCPU-based limits starting on October 24, If you are a new customer, this will make the transition to vCPU-based instance limits really simple. Accounts created on October 24, or later will start seeing vCPU limits. For existing accounts, you can check the scheduled migration date for your AWS account ID based on the first digit of your account ID by referring to the table below.

If you run into issues with vCPU-based limits during the transition period, you can temporarily opt out of vCPU limits and remediate your systems, however your account will automatically be transitioned back to vCPU limits after November 8, Regardless of your account settings, all new or existing AWS accounts will switch to vCPU limits starting October 24, , so it is important for you to test your systems with vCPU limits before the transition period ends. By testing and opting in earlier, you give yourself valuable time to make modifications to your limit management tools and you minimize the risk of any impact to your systems.

Accelerated Computing instance family is a family of instances which use hardware accelerators, or co-processors, to perform some functions, such as floating-point number calculation and graphics processing, more efficiently than is possible in software running on CPUs. Amazon EC2 provides three types of Accelerated Computing instances — GPU compute instances for general-purpose computing, GPU graphics instances for graphics intensive applications, and FPGA programmable hardware compute instances for advanced scientific workloads.

GPU instances work best for applications with massive parallelism such as workloads using thousands of threads. Graphics processing is an example with huge computational requirements, where each of the tasks is relatively small, the set of operations performed form a pipeline, and the throughput of this pipeline is more important than the latency of the individual operations.

Example applications of G3 instances include 3D visualizations, graphics-intensive remote workstation, 3D rendering, application streaming, video encoding, and other server-side graphics workloads. GV not only builds upon the advances of its predecessor, the Pascal GP GPU, it significantly improves performance and scalability, and adds many new features that improve programmability. These advances will supercharge HPC, data center, supercomputer, and deep learning systems and applications. P3 instances with their high computational performance will benefit users in artificial intelligence AI , machine learning ML , deep learning DL and high performance computing HPC applications.

Users includes data scientists, data architects, data analysts, scientific researchers, ML engineers, IT managers and software developers. P3 instance use GPUs to accelerate numerous deep learning systems and applications including autonomous vehicle platforms, speech, image, and text recognition systems, intelligent video analytics, molecular simulations, drug discovery, disease diagnosis, weather forecasting, big data analytics, financial modeling, robotics, factory automation, real-time language translation, online search optimizations, and personalized user recommendations, to name just a few.

GPU-based compute instances provide greater throughput and performance because they are designed for massively parallel processing using thousands of specialized cores per GPU, versus CPUs offering sequential processing with a few cores. In addition, developers have built hundreds of GPU-optimized scientific HPC applications such as quantum chemistry, molecular dynamics, meteorology, among many others. P2 instances provide customers with high bandwidth 25 Gbps networking, powerful single and double precision floating-point capabilities, and error-correcting code ECC memory, making them ideal for deep learning, high performance databases, computational fluid dynamics, computational finance, seismic analysis, molecular modeling, genomics, rendering, and other server-side GPU compute workloads.

P2 instances provide customers with high bandwidth 25 Gbps networking, powerful single and double precision floating-point capabilities, and error-correcting code ECC memory. However, you are responsible for determining whether your content or technology used on G2 and G3 instances requires any additional licensing. For example, if you are streaming content you may need licenses for some or all of that content. For example, if you leverage the on-board h. Amazon EC2 F1 is a compute instance with programmable hardware you can use for application acceleration.

The new F1 instance type provides a high performance, easy to access FPGA for developing and deploying custom hardware accelerations. FPGAs are programmable integrated circuits that you can configure using software. And, FPGAs are reprogrammable, so you get the flexibility to update and optimize your hardware acceleration without having to redesign the hardware. F1 is an AWS instance with programmable hardware for application acceleration. With F1, you have access to FPGA hardware in a few simple clicks, reducing the time and cost of full-cycle FPGA development and scale deployment from months or years to days.

While FPGA technology has been available for decades, adoption of application acceleration has struggled to be successful in both the development of accelerators and the business model of selling custom hardware for traditional enterprises, due to time and cost in development infrastructure, hardware design, and at-scale deployment.

With this offering, customers avoid the undifferentiated heavy lifting associated with developing FPGAs in on-premises data centers. After an AFI is created, it can be loaded on a running F1 instance. This lets you quickly test and run multiple hardware accelerations in rapid sequence. Both developers and customers have access to the AWS Marketplace where AFIs can be listed and purchased for use in application accelerations.

Customers need only write software to the specific API for that accelerator and start using the accelerator. Developers should have experience in the programming languages used for creating FPGA code i. Verilog or VHDL and an understanding of the operation they wish to accelerate. Customers do not need any FPGA experience or knowledge to use these accelerators.

They can work completely at the software API level for that accelerator. The Hardware Development Kit HDK includes simulation tools and simulation models for developers to simulate, debug, build, and register their acceleration code. These models and scripts are available publically with an AWS account. Compute Optimized instances are designed for applications that benefit from high compute power.

These applications include compute-intensive applications like high-performance web servers, high-performance computing HPC , scientific modelling, distributed analytics and machine learning inference. Each C4 instance type is EBS-optimized by default. C4 instances Mbps to 4, Mbps to EBS above and beyond the general-purpose network throughput provided to the instance. Since this feature is always enabled on C4 instances, launching a C4 instance explicitly as EBS-optimized will not affect the instance's behavior.

How can I use the processor state control feature available on the c4. The c4. This feature is currently available only on Linux instances. You may want to change C-state or P-state settings to increase processor performance consistency, reduce latency, or tune your instance for a specific workload. By default, Amazon Linux provides the highest-performance configuration that is optimal for most customer workloads; however, if your application would benefit from lower latency at the cost of higher single- or dual-core frequencies, or from lower-frequency sustained performance as opposed to bursty Turbo Boost frequencies, then you should consider experimenting with the C-state or P-state configuration options that are available to these instances.

Customers looking for absolute performance for graphics rendering and HPC workloads that can be accelerated with GPUs or FPGAs should also evaluate other instance families in the Amazon EC2 portfolio that include those resources to find the ideal instance for their workload. The following AMIs are supported on C Though the NVMe interface may provide lower latency compared to Xen paravirtualized block devices, when used to access EBS volumes the volume type, size, and provisioned IOPS if applicable will determine the overall latency and throughput characteristics of the volume.

C5 instances support a maximum for 27 EBS volumes for all Operating systems. These processors are based on the bit Arm instruction set and feature Arm Neoverse cores as well as custom silicon designed by AWS. The cores operate at a frequency of 2. A1 instances deliver significant cost savings for customer workloads that are supported by the extensive Arm ecosystem and can fit within the available memory footprint. A1 instances are ideal for scale-out applications such as web servers, containerized microservices, caching fleets, and distributed data stores.

These instances will also appeal to developers, enthusiasts, and educators across the Arm developer community. We encourage customers running such applications to give A1 instances a try.

Automating Management of Amazon EC2 Instances - March 2017 AWS Online Tech Talks

Applications that require higher compute and network performance, require higher memory, or have dependencies on x86 architecture will be better suited for existing instances like the M5, C5, or R5 instances. Applications with variable CPU usage that experience occasional spikes in demand will get the most cost savings from the burstable performance T3 instances. Q: Will customers have to modify applications and workloads to be able to run on the A1 instances? The changes required are dependent on the application.

Applications based on interpreted or run-time compiled languages e. Other applications may need to be recompiled and those that don't rely on x86 instructions will generally build with minimal to no changes. A1 instances will not support the blkfront interface. Q: Why does the total memory reported by Linux not match the advertised memory of the A1 instance type? In A1 instances, portions of the total memory for an instance are reserved from use by the operating system including areas used by the virtual UEFI for things like ACPI tables.

M5 instances offer a good choice for running development and test environments, web, mobile and gaming applications, analytics applications, and business critical applications including ERP, HR, CRM, and collaboration apps. Customers who are interested in running their data intensive workloads e. Workloads that heavily use single and double precision floating point operations and vector processing such as video processing workloads and need higher memory can benefit substantially from the AVX instructions that M5 supports. Compared with EC2 M4 Instances, the new EC2 M5 Instances deliver customers greater compute and storage performance, larger instance sizes for less cost, consistency and security.

With AVX support in M5 vs. M5 instances also feature significantly higher networking and Amazon EBS performance on smaller instance sizes with EBS burst capability. Intel AVX offers exceptional processing of encryption algorithms, helping to reduce the performance overhead for cryptography, which means EC2 M5 and M5d customers can deploy more secure data and services into distributed environments without compromising performance. The M5 and M5d instance types use a 3.

The M5a and M5ad instance types use a 2. The M5d and M5ad instance types support up to 3. For workloads that require the highest processor performance or high floating-point performance capabilities, including vectorized computing with AVX instructions, then we suggest you use the M5 or M5d instance types. With ENA, M5 and M5d instances can deliver up to 25 Gbps of network bandwidth between instances and the M5a and M5ad instance types can support up to 20Gbps of network bandwidth between instances.

You will want to verify that the minimum memory requirements of your operating system and applications are within the memory allocated for each T2 instance size e. You can find AMIs suitable for the t2. T2 instances provide a cost-effective platform for a broad range of general purpose production workloads. T2 Unlimited instances can sustain high CPU performance for as long as required. For example, the t2.

Combat a common error with AWS EC2 instances

Three High Memory instances are available. Each High Memory instance offers logical processors, where each logical processor is a hyperthread on the 8-socket platform with total of CPU cores. High Memory instances are EC2 bare metal instances, and do not run on a hypervisor. These instances allow the operating systems to run directly on the underlying hardware, while still providing access to the benefits of the cloud.

You can configure C-states and P-states on High Memory instances. You can use C-states to enable higher turbo frequencies as much as 3. You can also use P-states to lower performance variability by pinning all cores at P1 or higher P states, which is similar to disabling Turbo, and running consistently at the base CPU clock speed. After the 3-year reservation expires, you can continue using the host at an hourly rate or release it anytime.

Once a Dedicated Host is allocated within your account, it will be standing by for your use. The Dedicated Host will be allocated to your account for the period of 3-year reservation. After the 3-year reservation expires, you can continue using the host or release it anytime. AWS Quick Starts are modular and customizable, so you can layer additional functionality on top or modify them for your own implementations.

These have been moved to the Previous Generation Instance page. Currently, there are no plans to end of life Previous Generation instances. However, with any rapidly evolving technology the latest generation will typically provide the best performance for the price and we encourage our customers to take advantage of technological advancements. Your Reserved Instances will not change, and the Previous Generation instances are not going away. Memory-optimized instances offer large memory size for memory intensive applications including in-memory applications, in-memory databases, in-memory analytics solutions, High Performance Computing HPC , scientific computing, and other memory-intensive applications.

X1e instances are ideal for running in-memory databases like SAP HANA, high-performance databases and other memory optimized enterprise applications. X1e instances offer twice the memory per vCPU compared to the X1 instances. The x1e. What are the key specifications of Intel E7 codenamed Haswell processors that power X1 and X1e instances? The E7 processors have a high core count to support workloads that scale efficiently on large number of cores. The Intel E7 processors also feature high memory bandwidth and larger L3 caches to boost the performance of in-memory applications.

In addition, the Intel E7 processor:. You can configure C-states and P-states on x1e. We strongly recommend that you use the latest AMIs when you launch these instances. X1 instances offer SSD based instance store, which is ideal for temporary storage of information such as logs, buffers, caches, temporary tables, temporary computational data, and other temporary content.

EBS offers multiple volume types to support a wide variety of workloads. For more information see the EC2 User Guide. You can design simple and cost-effective failover solutions on X1 instances using Amazon EC2 Auto Recovery , an Amazon EC2 feature that is designed to better manage failover upon instance impairment. Instance recovery is subject to underlying limitations, including those reflected in the Instance Recovery Troubleshooting documentation. Dense-storage instances are designed for workloads that require high sequential read and write access to very large data sets, such as Hadoop distributed computing, massively parallel processing data warehousing, and log processing applications.

The largest current generation of Dense-storage instances, d2. The largest H1 instances size, h1. To ensure the best disk throughput performance from your D2 instances on Linux, we recommend that you use the most recent version of the Amazon Linux AMI, or another Linux AMI with a kernel version of 3. Do Dense-storage and HDD-storage instances provide any failover mechanisms or redundancy?

The primary data storage for Dense-storage instances is HDD-based instance storage. Like all instance storage, these storage volumes persist only for the life of the instance. Hence, we recommend that you build a degree of redundancy e. You can also back up data periodically to more durable data storage solutions such as Amazon Simple Storage Service S3 for additional data durability.

Please refer to Amazon S3 for reference. Amazon EBS offers simple, elastic, reliable replicated , and persistent block level storage for Amazon EC2 while abstracting the details of the underlying storage media in use. Amazon EC2 instance storage provides directly attached non-persistent, high performance storage building blocks that can be used for a variety of storage applications. Each H1 instance type is EBS-optimized by default. H1 instances offer 1, Mbps to 14, Mbps to EBS above and beyond the general-purpose network throughput provided to the instance.

Since this feature is always enabled on H1 instances, launching a H1 instance explicitly as EBS-optimized will not affect the instance's behavior. Each D2 instance type is EBS-optimized by default. D2 instances Mbps to 4, Mbps to EBS above and beyond the general-purpose network throughput provided to the instance.

Since this feature is always enabled on D2 instances, launching a D2 instance explicitly as EBS-optimized will not affect the instance's behavior. With Amazon VPC, you can leverage a number of features that are available only on the Amazon VPC platform — such as enabling enhanced networking, assigning multiple private IP addresses to your instances, or changing your instances' security groups. However, by launching a Dense-storage instance into a VPC, you can leverage a number of features that are available only on the Amazon VPC platform — such as enabling enhanced networking, assigning multiple private IP addresses to your instances, or changing your instances' security groups.

I3 and I3en instances offer NVMe only storage, while previous generation I2 instances allow legacy blkfront storage access. Currently, you can launch 2 i3. If you wish to run more than 2 On-Demand instances, please complete the Amazon EC2 instance request form. AWS has other database and Big Data offerings. Example applications are:. Like other Amazon EC2 instance types, instance storage on I3 and I3en instances persists during the life of the instance. Customers are expected to build resilience into their applications.

We recommend using databases and file systems that support redundancy and fault tolerance. Customers should back up data periodically to Amazon S3 for improved data durability. The TRIM command allows the operating system to inform SSDs which blocks of data are no longer considered in use and can be wiped internally. In the absence of TRIM, future write operations to the involved blocks can slow down significantly. The data stored on a local instance store will persist only as long as that instance is alive.

How it works

However, data that is stored on an Amazon EBS volume will persist independently of the life of the instance. Therefore, we recommend that you use the local instance store for temporary data and, for data requiring a higher level of durability, we recommend using Amazon EBS volumes or backing up the data to Amazon S3.

Amazon EBS provides four current generation volume types and are divided into two major categories: SSD-backed storage for transactional workloads and HDD-backed storage for throughput intensive workloads. These volume types differ in performance characteristics and price, allowing you to tailor your storage performance and cost to the needs of your applications.

It is ideal for less frequently accessed workloads with large, cold datasets. For infrequently accessed data, sc1 provides extremely inexpensive storage. While you are able to attach multiple volumes to a single instance, attaching multiple instances to one volume is not supported at this time. Q: Do volumes need to be un-mounted in order to take a snapshot? Does the snapshot need to complete before the volume can be used again? No, snapshots can be done in real time while the volume is attached and in use. However, snapshots only capture data that has been written to your Amazon EBS volume, which might exclude any data that has been locally cached by your application or OS.

In order to ensure consistent snapshots on volumes attached to an instance, we recommend cleanly detaching the volume, issuing the snapshot command, and then reattaching the volume. For Amazon EBS volumes that serve as root devices, we recommend shutting down the machine to take a clean snapshot.

Each snapshot is given a unique identifier, and customers can create volumes based on any of their existing snapshots. Users who have permission to create volumes based on your shared snapshots will first make a copy of the snapshot into their account. Users can modify their own copies of the data, but the data on your original snapshot and any other volumes created by other users from your original snapshot will remain unmodified.

This section will list both snapshots you own and snapshots that have been shared with you. EBS offers seamless encryption of data volumes and snapshots. EBS encryption better enables you to meet security and encryption compliance requirements. You can mix and match the instance types connected to a single file system. Amazon EFS file systems can also be mounted on an on-premises server, so any data that is accessible to an on-premises server can be read and written to Amazon EFS using standard Linux tools.

For more information about moving data to the Amazon cloud, please see the Cloud Data Migration page. Q: Are encryption keys unique to an instance or a particular device for NVMe instance storage? Encryption keys are securely generated within the Nitro hardware module, and are unique to each NVMe instance storage device that is provided with an EC2 instance. All keys are irrecoverably destroyed on any de-allocation of the storage, including instance stop and instance terminate actions. Customers cannot bring in their own keys to use with NVMe instance storage.

EFA brings the scalability, flexibility, and elasticity of cloud to tightly-coupled HPC applications. With EFA, tightly-coupled HPC applications have access to lower and more consistent latency and higher throughput than traditional TCP channels, enabling them to scale better. High Performance Computing HPC applications distribute computational workloads across a cluster of instances for parallel processing.

HPC applications are generally written using the Message Passing Interface MPI and impose stringent requirements for inter-instance communication in terms of both latency and bandwidth. EFA devices provide all ENA devices functionalities plus a new OS bypass hardware interface that allows user-space applications to communicate directly with the hardware-provided reliable transport functionality. Support for more instance types and sizes being added in the coming months. EFA support can be enabled either at the launch of the instance or added to a stopped instance. EFA devices cannot be attached to a running instance.

Public IPV4 internet addresses are a scarce resource. There is only a limited amount of public IP space available, and Amazon EC2 is committed to helping use that space efficiently. By default, all accounts are limited to 5 Elastic IP addresses per region. If you need more the 5 Elastic IP addresses, we ask that you apply for your limit to be raised. We will ask you to think through your use case and help us understand your need for additional addresses. You can apply for more Elastic IP address here. Any increases will be specific to the region they have been requested for. In order to help ensure our customers are efficiently using the Elastic IP addresses, we impose a small hourly charge for each address when it is not associated to a running instance.

You do not need an Elastic IP address for all your instances. By default, every instance comes with a private IP address and an internet routable public IP address. The private IP address remains associated with the network interface when the instance is stopped and restarted, and is released when the instance is terminated. The public address is associated exclusively with the instance until it is stopped, terminated or replaced with an Elastic IP address.

These IP addresses should be adequate for many applications where you do not need a long lived internet routable end point. Compute clusters, web crawling, and backend services are all examples of applications that typically do not require Elastic IP addresses. The remap process currently takes several minutes from when you instruct us to remap the Elastic IP until it fully propagates through our system. For customers requiring custom reverse DNS settings for internet-facing applications that use IP-based mutual authentication such as sending email from EC2 instances , you can configure the reverse DNS record of your Elastic IP address by filling out this form.

Elastic Load Balancing offers two types of load balancers that both feature high availability, automatic scaling, and robust security. These include the Classic Load Balancer that routes traffic based on either application or network level information, and the Application Load Balancer that routes traffic based on advanced application level information that includes the content of the request. The Classic Load Balancer is ideal for simple load balancing of traffic across multiple EC2 instances, while the Application Load Balancer is ideal for applications needing advanced routing capabilities, microservices, and container-based architectures.

Please visit Elastic Load Balancing for more information. For supported Amazon EC2 instances, this feature provides higher packet per second PPS performance, lower inter-instance latencies, and very low network jitter. C3, C4, D2, I2, M4 excluding m4. Amazon Linux AMI includes both of these drivers by default. For AMIs that do not contain these drivers, you will need to download and install the appropriate drivers based on the instance types you plan to use. No, there is no additional fee for Enhanced Networking.

Depending on your instance type, enhanced networking can be enabled using one of the following mechanisms:. You have complete control over the visibility of your systems. The Amazon EC2 security systems allow you to place your running instances into arbitrary groups of your choice. Using the web services interface, you can then specify which groups may communicate with which other groups, and also which IP subnets on the Internet may talk to which groups.

This allows you to control access to your instances in our highly dynamic environment. Of course, you should also secure your instance as you would any other server. For more information, visit the CloudTrail home page. Q: What is the minimum time interval granularity for the data that Amazon CloudWatch receives and aggregates? Amazon CloudWatch receives and provides metrics for all Amazon EC2 instances and should work with any operating system currently supported by the Amazon EC2 service.

You can retrieve metrics data for any Amazon EC2 instance up to 2 weeks from the time you started to monitor it. After 2 weeks, metrics data for an Amazon EC2 instance will not be available if monitoring was disabled for that Amazon EC2 instance. If you want to archive metrics beyond 2 weeks you can do so by calling mon-get-stats command from the command line and storing the results in Amazon S3 or Amazon SimpleDB.

Q: Why does the graphing of the same time window look different when I view in 5 minute and 1 minute periods? If you view the same time window in a 5 minute period versus a 1 minute period, you may see that data points are displayed in different places on the graph. For the period you specify in your graph, Amazon CloudWatch will find all the available data points and calculates a single, aggregate point to represent the entire period. In the case of a 5 minute period, the single data point is placed at the beginning of the 5 minute time window. In the case of a 1 minute period, the single data point is placed at the 1 minute mark.

We recommend using a 1 minute period for troubleshooting and other activities that require the most precise graphing of time periods. Amazon EC2 Auto Scaling is a fully managed service designed to launch or terminate Amazon EC2 instances automatically to help ensure you have the correct number of Amazon EC2 instances available to handle the load for your application.

EC2 Auto Scaling helps you maintain application availability through fleet management for EC2 instances, which detects and replaces unhealthy instances, and by scaling your Amazon EC2 capacity up or down automatically according to conditions you define. You can use EC2 Auto Scaling to automatically increase the number of Amazon EC2 instances during demand spikes to maintain performance and decrease capacity during lulls to reduce costs.

2 Different Ways to Take EC2 Instance Backups

The capacity-optimized allocation strategy attempts to provision Spot Instances from the most available Spot Instance pools by analyzing capacity metrics. This strategy is a good choice for workloads that have a higher cost of interruption such as big data and analytics, image and media rendering, machine learning, and high performance computing.

You can hibernate an instance to get your instance and applications up and running quickly, if they take long time to bootstrap e. You can start instances, bring them to a desired state and hibernate them. When the instance is restarted, it returns to its previous state and reloads the RAM contents. In the case of hibernate, your instance gets hibernated and the RAM data persisted. In the case of Stop, your instance gets shutdown and RAM is cleared. Your private IP address remains the same, as does your elastic IP address if applicable.

The network layer behavior will be similar to that of EC2 Stop-Start workflow. Stop and hibernate are available for Amazon EBS backed instances only. Local instance storage is not persisted. Hibernating instances are charged at standard EBS rates for storage. As with a stopped instance, you do not incur instance usage fees while an instance is hibernating. Hibernation needs to be enabled when you launch the instance. For more information on using hibernation, refer to the user guide.

No, you cannot enable hibernation on an existing instance running or stopped. This needs to be enabled during instance launch. You can tell that an instance is hibernated by looking at the state reason. As with the Stop feature, root device and attached device data are stored on the corresponding EBS volumes. Encryption on the EBS root volume is enforced at instance launch time. admin