Gleanings in Buddha-Fields: Studies of hand and soul in the far east & The Buddhist Psalms

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The prince returns after sporting in the lake in the garden and on his return there were dancing , singing, etc. But he became averse to them and reached the banks of the river Anovama. In the Padyactidamani ninth canto , there is an account of his going to the city of Bimbisara but no mention has been made of his meeting with that king. Verse 54 of the same canto mentions his practising austere penances but no mention has been made of his staying with Alar a Kalama and Uddakaramaputta. Verses 59 and 60 refer to the gift of payasa but the name of Sujata has not been given.

Buddhaghosa was well acquainted with the traditions about the life of the Sakya Sage and it is quite unlikety that he should have omitted some of the important incidents of the life of the Great Teacher. The fact that the Padyacfidamani ends exactly where the extant original portion of the Buddhacarita of Aswaghosa comes to an end, is insignificant. The Buddhacarita was translated inco Chinese in A. One other point requires consideration. The great com- mentator possessed, no doubt , a wide knowledge of Sanskrit literature , but there is no indication anywhere, in the accounts of his life as given in the Mahavaiiisa or the later works like the Sasanavamsa, etc.

He was devoted to the Pali literature of which he was a past master , and it is not prob- able that he would go out of his way to compose a long poetical work in Sanskrit. Tumour's Mahavariisa and the. Mahayazawin state that during his residence in Ceylon , Buddhadhaghosa! The Siamese legend respecting this portion of his work is somewhat confused. This is probably the Atthakatha called the Maduratthavilasini whose authorship is assigned by Grimbolt not to Buddhaghosa but to a Buddhist monk living at the mouth of the Kaveri in Southern India.

A critical survey of Buddhaghosa ' s works suggests to the inquisitive student , manv far reach- Buddhaghosa's works— a mine of his-ing qucstious of which vcrv fcw have mdeed been hitherto exammed or an- swered. His life , his social , religious and philosophical views , his reminiscences of Ceylon , his relations with Buddhadatta , his special contributions to the Buddhist thought , etc.

Buddhaghosa ' s works reveal the development of his own mind and are explanatory of his earlier thoughts. They bear testimony to his profound knowledge and vast erudition. About the value of Buddhaghosa's works Mrs. Rhys Davids observes, It may readily be granted that Buddhaghosa must not be accepted en bloc. The distance between the constructive genius of Gotama and his apostles as compared with the succeeding ages of epigoni needs no depreciatory criticism on the labours of the exegetists to make itself felt forcibly enough. Buddhaghosa's philology is doubtless crude and he is apt to leave the cruces unexplained, concerning which an occidental is most in the dark.

Nevertheless, to me his work is not only highly suggestive, but also a mine of historic interest. To put it aside is to lose the historical X- erspective of the course of the Buddhist Philosophy " '. Much of the matter his commentaries contain is as old as the Tripitaka itself, while, like the Tripitaka , they are rich in history and folk-lore and abound in narratives which shed a flood of light on the social and moral condition of Ancient India.

Gray in his introduction to the Buddhaghosuppatti records thus: " Suvannabhumi in particular has good reason to be proud of him.

In search of Shakyamuni's scriptures

Gray further records, " Buddhaghosa's commen- taries as they now exist in Cejdon, were taken over from Pagan in Burma. No copy of them could have been kept by the Sinhalese priests after he first compiled them, other- wise Fa-Hien , who visited Anuradhapura after Buddha - ghosa , would most certainly have mentioned them and taken at least a cojjy of the commentary on the Vinaya. Thanks are due to the labours of the late Professor T.

Rhys Davids and Mrs. Rhys Davids , the founders of the Pali Text Society , Surrey and its other workers for publishing some of the important works of Buddhaghosa , namely the Visuddhimagga , portions of the Sumangala - vilasini, the Atthasalini , the Puggala Panhatti commentary, the Dhammapada commentary, the Kathavatthu commen- tary, and the Patthana commentary. We are glad to find that they have undertaken to print a few other books of the great commentator, namely, the Manorathapurani , the vSammohavinodani, the Saratthapakasini, the Samantapasa- dika and the remaining portions of the Sumahgalavilasini.

These, no doubt , are and will be the permanent works of the society and from them the world will know more about Buddhism. The Successors Of Buddhaghosa. Buddhaghosa is credited by the Mahavariisa with having written commentaries on the whole of Buddhist Tripitaka. But, as we have seen in the last chapter , though he wrote commentaries on a very large portion of all the three pitakas , yet a considerable portion remained un attempted by him. Perhaps he found his life too short for the com- pletion of the huge work to which he devoted his life , or.

The work thus left unfinished was taken up by others who came after him and it will be in- But completed by his tcrcsting here to give an account of successors. Buddhadatta , the reputed author of— Uttaravinicchayo. Madhuratthavilasini, a commentary on the Bud- dhavamsa. Vimalavilasini, a commentary on the Vimiana-vatthu. Vimalavilasini, a commentary on the Petavatthu. Param at thamafi j Qsa. Linatthavannana, etc. Mahanama who wrote the Saddhammapakasini, a commentary on the Patisambhidamagga. Moggallana navo , author of the Abhidhanappa-dipika.

Cullabuddhaghosa, author of the Jatattaginidanam and Sotattaginidanatii. According to the account given in the Buddhaghosuppatti , Bud- dhaghosa is said to have sailed for Ceylon after taking his preceptor's permission the very day that Buddhadatta left Ceylon for Jambudvipa. He was in the ship for three days. Through the supernatural powers of Sakka , the ships of the two theras came in contact with each other. The merchants who were on the vessel of Buddhadatta saw Buddhaghosa and were frightened.

Buddhaghosa came out and seeing the merchants frightened, asked, "Who is the monk in your ship"? The merchants replied, " Buddhadatta. Buddhadatta then came out and saw the thera and asked his name. Buddhaghosa repHed, " I am Buddhaghosa. Buddhaghosa replied, "I am going to Ceylon. He replied, "The teaching of the Lord is written in Ceylonese and I am going to render it into Magadhi. Buddhaghosa on his part praised the J inalahkara of Buddhadatta and.

I am short-Hved, I won't live long, you perform the task. The known facts about Buddhadatta may be told in a few words. He tells us that his royal patron was King Accutavikkanta of the Kalamba dynasty. All his works were written in the famous monastery erected by Venhudasa or Kanhadasa on the banks of the Kaveri. Buddhadatta has prepared an edition of his notable namesake's Abhidhammavatara , i. Buddhadatta opens his scheme with a fourfold division of the compendium, viz. In this respect Buddhadatta 's representation is perhaps better than that of Buddhaghosa. Bode , pp.

Colaratthe Bhutamaiigala-game Venhudasassa arame vasantena Accutavikkama-namassa colaraiino kale kato. There is no reason to disbelieve the statement that the two teachers ' met each other. It is clear that they drew materials from the same source. Buddhadatta has rendered great service to the study of the Abhidhamma tradition which has survived in Theravada Buddhism to the present day.

Buddhaghosa said that he would comply with his request and the narra- tive adds that the Pali commentaries were after completion actually placed in the hands of Buddhadatta who summed up the commentaries on the Abhidhamma in the Abhi - dhammavatara and those on the Vinaya in the Vinaya - vinicchaya abridged translation of the foregoing by the editor, Buddhadatta ' s Manual, p. Rhys Davids says, " It is probably right to conclude that they both were but handing on an analytical formula , which liad evolved between their own time and that of the final closing of the Abhidhamma Pitaka. According to Rev.

This statement is, however, doubtful. The different accounts of the comparative age of Bud- dhadatta and Buddhaghosa are hardly reconcihable. The account given in the Introduction to the Abhidhammavatara clearly shows that Buddhadatta lived to write abridgements of some of Buddhaghosa's works. This goes against the legend contained in the Buddhaghosuppatti that Buddha - datta left Ceylon earlier than Buddhaghosa without trans- lating the Ceylonese Atthakatha , apprehending that he was not to live long. The Sasanavaiiisa records that acariya Dhammapala-thero dwelt at Padaratittha in the King - Dhammaplia.

It is for this reason that he should be regarded as one of the Sinhalese commentators " vSo ca acariya - Dhammapalathero Sihaladipassa samipe Damilaratthe Pada - ratitthamhi nivasitatta Sihaladipe yeva samgahetva vat- tabbo. Rhys Davids is of the opinion that Buddhaghosa and Dhammapala seem to have been educated at the same University. In support of this view he refers to the pub- Ushed works of the two writers, a careful study of which shows that they hold very similar views , they appeal to the same authorities, they have the same method of exegesis , they have reached the same stage in philological and ety- mological science and they have the same lack of any know- ledge of the simplest rules of the higher criticism.

Tlie con- clusion follows that as far as we can at present judge , they must have been trained in the same school. Hasting' s Encyclopaedia of Religion and Ethics , Vol. He not only gives the dkhydna in each Psalm, but adds a paraphrase in the Pali of his day, of the more archaic idiom in which the gdthds were compiled. His explanation of terms is very clear. His commentaries throw considerable light on the social , religious , moral and philosophicar ideas of the time like the commentaries of Buddhaghosa.

In short, his works remind us of the commentaries of Buddhaghosa. Dhammapala's chronicles are, for the most part, unduplicated in any other extant work; but not seldom they run on all fours, not only with parallel chronicles in Buddhaghosa ' s commentaries, but also with the prose framework of poems in Sutta-Nipata or Samyutta Nikaya , not to mention the Jataka.

The life and work of Buddhaghosa

Rhys Davids on this point Mrs. Rhys Davids ' Psalms of the Brethren , p. Buddhaghosa was not merely a metaphysician. His scholarship was wide and deep. His information was vast. He had a fair knowledge of the vegetable kingdom. Buddhaghosa was not ignorant of astronomy. His astronomical knowledge is evidenced by Astronomy. It appears that he studied the great grammar of Panini. In the Visuddhimagga P. Edition, pp. Bhagava hi sammasaitibuddho paramissariyabhavato indo, kusalakusalan ca kammaih, kammesu kassaci issariyabhavato.

Tena ca sitthaniti indalingatthena indasitthatthena ca indriyani. Sabban'eva pan'etani Bhagavata yathabhutato pakasit.

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Ayarh tav' ettha atthato vinicchayo. This seems also to show that Buddhaghosa knew of and utilised the work of Panini. He dehnes Dakshinapatha or the Deccan as the tract of land lying to the south of the Ganges. He records that the Godavari forms the border line between the territories of two Andhra Kings Dvinnaiii Andhakaraja- narii , that is to say, between Assaka and Alaka. In Buddlia-. Of Xorthern India , especially of North-eastern India which, according to tradition , was his birth-place, Buddha - ghosa gives a little more information in his writings.

In the Sumaiigalavilasini, in connection with the city of Cam. On its banks all around, there was a great forest of Campaka trees decorated with flowers of five colours , blue, etc. This account of Campa has, however, hardly any geographical value. He also gives us his own interpretation of the term Anga. According to him, it is so called because of the beauty of the princes of the country. He mentions Magadha ' Sutta-Nipata Commentary, p.

Atthasalini P. Tassa tire samantato niladi-panca-vanna-kusuma-patimanditaiii mahantaiii campaka vanarii. In commenting upon the word ' Mahavana ', he says, "Outside the town lying in one stretch up to the Himalayas , there is a natural forest which on account of the large area covered by it, is called ' Mahavana.

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A pasada or a storied building was built on pillars, a pinnacle was put above it and it was made into a Kiitagarasala re- sembling a mansion of devas devavimana. From it, all Sarigharamas or monasteries are known as Kutagarasalas. He was acquainted with the opinions of the Ajivikas and the Niganthas , as appears from his observatioi is regarding their views of the? He speaks of Purana Kassapa as one of the teachers who went about naked. He fled to a forest where his clothes were snatched away by robbers.

In his nude state , he entered a village where he was held as a holy mendicant. Regardhig Pakudha Kaccayana , we are told that he did not use cold water. He used hot water or hot rice-gruel. Sumahgalavilasini, p As to Gosala , Buddhaghosa says that, in his opinion, things happen exactly as they are to happen, that which is not to happen does not happen.

Sumahgalavilasini, pp. Makkhali was the personal name of this teacher and he was called Gosala because he was born in a cow-pen. One day he was ordered to carry an oil-pot along a muddy slippery path. His master told him, "Tata, ma khaliti. His master caught the end of his garment but he ran on naked leaving the garment behind. Sumahgalavilasini, p. With regard to Ajitakesakambalin, Buddhaghosa says that Ajita was his proper name.

His nickname was Kesa - kambalin hair-blanket because he used to wear a blanket made of human hair. This blanket, according to Buddha - ghosa , is the worst of all garments, being cold in winter and warm in summer and it is the cheapest and it is rough and ugly and emits a bad smell. Buddhaghosa tells us that after a Hall had been estab- lished in Queen Mallika's park at Savatthi , others near it were built in honour of the various famous teachers but the group of buildings continued to be known as "the Hall.

Buddhaghosa records in his Sumahgalavilasini pp. This dissatisfied him and he got together some followers and made a Saiiigha separate from the Bhik- khusamgha of the Buddha. This Samgha of Devadatta flourished for some time. Shortly afterwards Devadatta lost his prestige.

He succeeded in persuading Ajatasatru to become his follower, by showing him a miracle. It was he who induced Ajatasatru to torture his father Bimbisara to death and to become the King of Magadha. He himself made several attempts to kill the Buddha , but in vain. At last he wanted to see the Buddha but he was swallowed up by the earth by the side of a pond at Jetavana. Buddhaghosa further supplies us with important and interesting information regarding the Account of Indian Mallas , the Sakvas, the Koliyas , the Licchavis and so forth.

In the Sumafigalavilasini, we have an account of the origin of the Sakyas and their matrimonial alliances with the Koliyas. From the above, it is obvious that the Sakyas had a technical college of their own. Buddhaghosa supplies us with the information that it was a long terraced mansion made for the learning of crafts. Regarding the Licchavis , also, the great commentator furnishes us with some interesting particulars. In it, songs were sung, trumpets, drums and other musical instruments were used and flags were flown. Kings , princes and commanders-in-chief took part in the festival and spent the whole night in merry-making.

It is stated in the Dhammapadatthakatha that the Lic- chavis used to go to gardens with the beauties of the town ' nagarasobhini. Some precious gems were washed away by the Ganges , and there was a contract between the Licchavis and King Ajatasatru of Magadha that they would divide the gems equally. But the avaricious Licchavis did not fulfil the agreement. This enraged Ajatasatru very much. He thought of punishing them for this act. Ill, p. Ill, pp. Revised by Nanissara, p. He tried to be friendty with the Licchavis , but he had to give up this idea.

At last he resorted to the device of sowing dissen- sions and he was successful. Through his machinations the unity of the Licchavis was almost broken, with the re- sult that the poor among the Licchavis began to hate the rich, and the strong looked down upon the weak. At that psychological moment , Aiatasatru took advantage of the internal dissensions amongst the Licchavis and invaded the Vajjian territory. The weaker Licchavis refused to stand against him and said, "Let the strong Licchavis go for- ward and crush him.

Buddhaghosa also gives other interesting particulars about the Licchavis. If a Licchavi fell ill, the other Licchavis came to see hira. The whole clan would join any auspicious ceremony performed in the house of a Licchavi. They sent out armies at the approach of foreign invaders. With regard to the financial administration of the Licchavis , Buddha - ghosa tells us that they were' averse to the nnposition of new taxes.

Old taxes were kept up. The Vajjians used to learn Rajaniti or the science of state-craft from their, old experienced countrymen. They used to hold frequent meet- ings at which matters relating to various parts of the. By beat of drum the meeting was announced and every one tried to attend and the work being done, they all dispersed at the same time. Book of Precedents. According to him, the king called ' Seniya ', as he was associated with a large army.

He was called Bimbisara , because his body was like gold 'Bimbi' means golden. Bimbisara was the contemporary king of Magadha , The king of Kosala gave his own daughter, Vai-. Te pi vinic- chinitva sace acoro hoti, vissajjenti, sace coro hoti, attano kinci avatva Voharikanaiii denti, tepi vinicchinitva acoro ce vissajjenti, coro ce Suttadhara different reading, , Antokarika-Burmese manuscript nama honti, tesam denti; te pi vinicchinitva acoro ce vissajjenti, coro ce Atthakulikanam denti, te pi tath'eva katva Senapatissa, Sena pati Uparajassa, Uparaja Ranfio, raja vinicchinitva acoro ce vissajjenti; sace pana- coro hoti, " Pavenipotthakaih" vacapeti, tattha " yena idaiii nama katam, tassa ayarii nama dando ti likhitarn " raja tassa kiriyam tena samanetva tadanucchavikarii dandam karotiti eva poranam Vajjidhammaiii.

Simon Hewavitarne Bequest Series, Colombo. Rhys Davids in his Buddhist India , p. But Buddhaghosa in his Sumangal- avilasini, pt. The princess was called Vaidehi because of her scholarship Vedehi — putto ti ayarh Kosalaraiino dhitaya putto, na Videha-rafmo. Vedehiti pana pauditadhivacanaiii etarii ". After the death of Maha - kosala , Pasenadi ascended the throne of Kosala. Savatthi was his capital. When the Buddha went to Rajagaha , Bim- bisara with his family became his follower. In his commentary on the Majjhima-Nikaya , Buddha - ghosa gives the following detailed account of king Pasenadi who was the ruler of Kosala at the time the Buddha preached his religion.

Buddhaghosa must have derived his information from the Atthakathas or other authentic records, so here may be some bits of genuine historical information. The fame of the Buddha spread far and wide and it reached Pasenadi who was envious of the great teacher. At first he sided with the heretics against the Buddha. It was at his instigation that some heretics spread a false report.

Pasenadi and the Buddha were of the same age. He loved the Brahmins very much and gave them large tracts of land. In order to put a stop to the misdeeds of the heretics , the Buddha sent Sariputta to king Pasenadi who at first refused to see him. Afterwards he became a convert and did inmiense service to the Buddhist Saihgha. His own wife MalHka devoted her. Mahakosala had given a large village' to meet the ex- penses of Vaidehi. Pasenadi was repeatedly defeated but he at last defeated Ajatasatru and took him prisoner. He first went to Jetavana Vihara to see the Buddha once. He added that he alone would bring the robber round.

At that time Angulimala was with the Buddha and the latter introduced him thus, " O, Maharaja , this is Angulimala. Pasenadi used to visit the Buddha often and listened to religious instructions. He asked the Teacher why he should be called Sanimasaihbuddha when Purana Kassapa , Makkhali Gosala and Nigantha Nathaputta who were older in age, were alive. There was a discussion between Pasenadi and the Buddha regarding soul. Even after Pasenadi's initiation , he did not disregard other sadhus and hermits , e. The Buddha replied, "You are a householder , you find delight in sensual pleasures.

It will not be possible for you to understand this question. You are right. The Buddha spoke to the Kosalan king about the utility of wealth. It is stated in the Sumarigalavilasini that Pasenadi of Kosala gave plenty of land to the brahmin Pokkharasati, a learned vedic teacher of Ukkatthanagara, in the kingdom of Kosala. He lived there in ease and comfort p.

According to the Papaiicasudani, Buddhaghosa's com- mentary on the Majjhima Nikaya , a merchant named Sudatta was the chief banker of Sravasti. He went to the house of his sister at Rajagaha and Ustened to the teachings of the Buddha. Pie desired to bring the Buddha to his native city and to serve him to his satisfaction. Unfor- tunatety there was no fit place for the Buddha at Sravasti and he determined to build a monastery in the city. This Sudatta was Anathapindika. Buddhaghosa also speaks of Visakha , the wealthiest woman devotee of the Buddha.

She built for the Buddha a monastery called Pubbarama. Buddhaghosa often mixes up fact and fable without exercising any discrimination. In his Dhammapada-attha- katha. I, part II, he records that there lived at Ko- sambi a king named Parantapa. At that time a bird named Hatthilihga taking her to be a lump of flesh, came to her and took her away with its claws. These birds had the strength of five elephants.

It was in the habit of look- ing back on the track, the queen cried and the bird left her. At that ti-ne rain poured heavily and continued throughout the night. Early in the morning, when the sun rose, a son was born to her. A hermit came to the spot where the son was born and saw the queen on the Xigrodha tree which was not far from his hermitage. When the queen introduced herself as a Ksatriyani, the hermit brought down the baby from the tree.

The queen came to the hermitage of the sage who accompanied her with her infant son, The queen succeeded in tempting him to take her as his spouse and they Hved as husband and wife. One day the hermit looked at the stars and saw the star of Parantapa disfigured. He informed her of the death of Parantapa of Kosambi. The queen cried and told him, "He is my husband, I am his queen. Her son eventually became king and was known as Udayana. The new king married Sama - vati , a daughter of a treasurer of Kosambi.

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Buddhaghosa also records the account of the elopement of Vasavadatta with Udayana , as we find it in the Svapnavasavadatta by Bhasa. Udayana had another wife named Magandiya , the daughter of a brahmin in the kingdom of the Kurus. Udena Vatthu , p. According to the Dhammapada-atthakatha , Anathapindika built a vihara known as Jetavana Vihara for the Buddha at the expense of 54 kotis of kahapana Catupannasa koti - dhanahi vissajjetva, D. The great banker first saw the Buddha at Rajagaha in the house of his sister. He built the Jetavana Vihara for the Master's residence. The site of the monastery was bought from Prince Jeta and the Buddha stayed there for nineteen years.

It was the first vihara built for the Buddha. In the house of Anathapindika , ahns were offered daily to two thousand Bhikkhus. Dliammapada- atthakatha , Burmese edition, p. In his commentary on the Dhammapada , Buddhaghosa narrated a story in which the master - "rTjSLumfra'! It relates that Bodhirajakumara had a palace built by an engineer, which was unique at that time.

The engineer was asked whether he had built a similar palace before. Bodhirajakumara thought that if the engineer lived, he would build a similar palace and in that case, his building would lose its charm. He decided that he should be killed or his hands and feet be cut off. The engineer came to know of this and in order to save himself, went to the top floor of the building and when he was asked whether he had finished his work, he requested the prince to supply him with some light dry wood. With this he prepaiied a garuda-bird, sufficient for the accommo- dation of his wife and children.

Prince Bodhi guarded the palace in order that the engineer might not go out. When the latter had finished making the bird, he sat within its body with his wife and children, and escaped flying through the window of the palace. Dhammapada Commentary, V"ol. Buddhaghosa well appreciates the beauty of bird-life and the effect of the sweet songs of birds Faiiha and Flora. In the Dhammapada-atthakatha , he makes mention of a bird called Hatthilihga which is described as an animal possessing the strength of five elephants.

It was in the habit of looking back on the track it had already trodden. His knowledge of the vegetable kingdom is evidenced by his mention of the five classes into which it is divided. Incidentally while explaining terms or expressions in the text, he gives us some glimpses into 'cie'nt manners. Thus he speaks of the tricks performed by jug- glers and says that three varieties of them were recog- nised. The word , pekkhaiii. He knew something about dancing and the decorations of scenic requirements for a dalice. He knew something about acrobatic feats as is apparent from his explanation of turn- ing over a trapeze.

We may also here refer to certain passages in which Buddhaghosa shows his knowledge of yToT Ce3don. Mention is made of a thera named Mahanaga of Kalavallimandapa and of the bhikkhus who took their abode in the vihara at Colombotittha, who with minds bent upon Kammatthana , walking on foot near the village and taking palmful of water , looking on the roads where quarrelsome and wicked persons, mad elephants , restive horses , etc.

One day while the attendant was walking behind the thera with alms-bowl and robes , he spoke to the thera thus, " Venerable Sir, how are the Ariyas "? The answer was that the Ariyas were a people very difhcult to be known. Sihaladipe Cakkana-upasakassa viya. Mahacetiyaiigana appears to bo the court-yard of. Mention is made of Thera Maha Tissa of the Cetiyapabbata who was in the habit of coming from Cetiyapabbata to Anuradhapura for alms.

It occurs in many places in the Mahavamsa. For its description see Parker's" Ruined cities of Ceylon. Tesaiia pitthipasse dahara bhikkhuniyo dhammaiii suvanti. Tatreko daharo hatthampasarento kayasamsaggaiii patva teneva karanena gihijato. Vol I, p. T Vol. See also Visuddhimagga , Vol I, pp. Paramatthajotika on the Khuddakapatha , Vol.

Sammohavino- dani Sinhalese edition , pp. We are told that Kesa is hair which is black and which grows on the head. It has been described as an impurity in colour , in form and in smell. We are further told that a person naturally dislikes a pot of nicely-cooked rice or rice - gruel if he sees anything like a hair in it.

Loma means hair of the body. Naturally it is of mixed colour , a combination of black and reddish- yellow. It grows on the skin of the whole body except the head where hairs grow. Nakha are the nails of the twenty fingers. They are white in colour , in shape they are like maccha-sakalika fish - scales. Danta teeth are naturally thirty-two in number for those who have got a full set of them, but occasionally there are exceptions. The four middle teeth of the lower gum are like the seed of a gourd sown on a ball of soft clay in a row, one after the other.

On each side of the four middle teeth , there are two that have one root and one top and in size they resemble the buds of the Mallika flower. On both sides of these two teeth again, there are two which have two roots and two tops and in shape they resemble the support of a cart.

Next, on each side of the above two, there are two pairs of teeth having three roots and three tops and on both sides of the two pairs of teeth , there are two other pairs having four roots and four tops. The colour of the skin is called Chavi. If the skin of the body be so contracted as to form one lump, it will resemble the stone of a plum. The taca is white in colour. Its whiteness is seen when it is burst open by the heat of the fire.

In shape, it is like that of the body. The skin of the toes is in shape like a scabbard. The skin of the upper part of the feet is like a wooden slipper covered with skin. The skin of the knee is like a rice-plate or palm-leaf. The skin of the thigh is like a bag full of rice. The skin of the hind parts resembles a bag of a water-man, full of water. The skin of the back is like a wooden board covered with skin. Mamsa means flesh and is composed of nine hundred lumps. All the lumps of flesh are red like the Kimsuka flower.

The flesh of the knee is like a rice-plate or palm- leaf. The flesh of the hinder parts is like the top of a furnace. The flesh of the back is like a lump of jaggery. The side-flesh is like a mud-plaster over the belly of an idol. The flesh of the breast resembles a covered lump of clay. The flesh of the arms is like the flesh of two big mice. Naharii denotes the muscles which are nine hundred in niimber.

All the muscles are white in colour , and are of various shapes. There are twenty big muscles , five on the left, five on the right, five on the back and five in the front, which come down from the top of the neck and spread all over the body. There are ten muscles in each hand, five in the front and five at the back. So also in the case of the feet. There are sixty big muscles in the whole body and they are known as supporters of the body. There are smaller muscles which resemble thread-ropes. There are still smaller muscles which are Hke the putilata cocculus cordif olius.

There are still smaller muscles which are like the strings of big lutes. The smallest muscles are like thick threads. The muscles of the diiferent parts of the body have different shapes. Atthi means bone. Besides the thirty- two bones of the teeth , there are three hundred bones in the human body including sixty-four bones of the hands, sixty-two of the feet, sixty-four short bones mixed with flesh, two bones of the palms of the hands, four bones of the heels, two leg bones , two knee bones , two thigh bones , two waist bones , eighteen back bones , twenty-four side bones , fourteen chest bones , one bone of the heart , two eye bones , two bones of the kottha, two bones of the arms, four bones of the fore- arms, seven bones of the neck, two bones of the jaw, one of the nose , two collar bones , two ear bones , one bone of the forehead , one bone of the top of the head, one bone of the head and nine bones of the skull.

Edgar Allan Poe. Nathaniel Hawthorne. Leonid Andreyev. In Ghostly Japan. Lafcadio Hearn's Japan. Japanese fairy tales series Volume 1 Illustrated edition. David Thomson.

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The Classic Fantasy Collection. Robert Ervin Howard. Japanese fairy tales series Volume 2 Illustrated edition. Japanese Ghost Stories. La Cuisine Creole. Yasumasa Fujita. Chinese Ghost Stories. Glimpses of Unfamiliar Japan. Modern Superstition. Gleanings in Buddha Field. Gleanings in Buddha-Fields. Some Chinese Ghosts. Kwaidan: Stories and Studies of Strange Things. Romance of the Milky Way and Other Studies. Gleanings In Buddha-Fields. Stray Leaves From Strange Literature. Kitty Literature. John Richard Stephens. Out of the East. Letters From The Raven.

The Romance of the Milky Way. Chita: a Memory of Last Island. Mary E. Wilkins Freeman. Japan, An Attempt At Interpretation. Gleaings in Buddha-Fields. How to write a great review. The review must be at least 50 characters long. The title should be at least 4 characters long. Your display name should be at least 2 characters long. At Kobo, we try to ensure that published reviews do not contain rude or profane language, spoilers, or any of our reviewer's personal information.

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How to write a great review Do Say what you liked best and least Describe the author's style Explain the rating you gave Don't Use rude and profane language Include any personal information Mention spoilers or the book's price Recap the plot. Close Report a review At Kobo, we try to ensure that published reviews do not contain rude or profane language, spoilers, or any of our reviewer's personal information. Would you like us to take another look at this review? Argha Chald. The ark, the womb of Nature; the crescent moon, and a life-saving ship; also a cup for offerings, a vessel used for religious ceremonies.

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A follower of Arius, a presbyter of the Church in Alexandria in the fourth century. One who holds that Christ is a created and human being, inferior to God the Father, though a grand and noble man, a true adept versed in all the divine mysteries. Aristobulus Gr An Alexandrian writer, and an obscure philosopher. A Jew who tried to prove that Aristotle explained the esoteric thoughts of Moses. Arithmomancy Gr. The science of correspondences between gods, men, and numbers, as taught by Pythagoras. Arjuna Sk. Ark of Isis. At the great Egyptian annual ceremony, which took place in the month of Athyr, the boat of Isis was borne in procession by the priests, and Collyrian cakes or buns, marked with the sign of the cross Tat , were eaten.

This was in commemoration of the weeping of Isis for the loss of Osiris, the Athyr festival being very impressive. Bonwick Eg. Belief and Mod. The Nornes , or veiled virgins, wept also for the loss of our Saxon forefathers' god, the ill-fated but good Baldur. Ark of the Covenant. Every ark-shrine, whether with the Egyptians, Hindus, Chaldeans or Mexicans, was a phallic shrine, the symbol of the yoni or womb of nature. The seket of the Egyptians, the ark, or sacred chest, stood on the ara —its pedestal.

Sharpe, the Egyptologist, carried by priests with staves passed through its rings in sacred procession, as the ark round which danced David, the King of Israel. Mexican gods also had their arks. Diana, Ceres, and other goddesses as well as gods had theirs. The ark was a boat—a vehicle in every case. The arks, whether of the covenant, or of honest, straightforward, Pagan symbolism, had originally and now have one and the same meaning. The chosen people appropriated the idea and forgot to acknowledge its source.

In Egypt, as shown by many Egyptologists, the two objects were the emblems of the Two Truths. Wilkinson says the figure of. Truth had closed eyes. Rosellini speaks of the Thmei being worn as a necklace. Diodorus gives such a necklace of gold and stones to the High Priest when delivering judgment. Bonwick's Egyp. The ancient priests who were attached to the Ark, whether of Isis, or the Hindu Argua , and who were seven in number, like the priests of the Egyptian Tat or any other cruciform symbol of the three and the four , the combination of which gives a male-female number.

The Argha or ark was the four-fold female principle, and the flame burning over it the triple lingham. Aroueris Gr. The god Harsiesi, who was the elder Horus. He had a temple at Ambos. Horus engendered between them, is not eternal nor incorruptible, but, being always in generation, he endeavours by vicissitudes of imitations, and by periodical passion yearly re-awakening to life to continue always young, as if he should never die.

There is indeed, a good deal of mystery about this god, but the meaning of the symbol becomes clear once one has the key to it. Legend has it that he was one thousand years old at that time. There is a book on dreams by him in the possession of an Alchemist, now in Bagdad, in which he gives out the secret of seeing the past, the present, and the future, in sleep, and of remembering the things seen. There are but two copies of this manuscript extant. The book on Dreams by the Jew Solomon Almulus, published in Hebrew at Amsterdam in , has a few reminiscences from the former work of Artephius.

A generic name in South America and the islands for temples of nagalism or serpent worship. Arwaker Scand. The horse of the chariot of the Sun driven by the maiden Sol, in the Eddas. But now the name has become the epithet of a race, and our Orientalists, depriving the Hindu Brahmans of their birth-right, have made Aryans of all Europeans. The earliest Hindu algerbraist and astronomer, with the exception of Asura Maya q.

It is, however, so mixed up with Sivaism and Tantrika magic and superstitions, that the work defeats its own end, notwithstanding its remarkable dialectical subtilty. How unreliable are the conclusions at which our Orientalists arrive, and how contradictory the dates assigned by them, may be seen in the case in hand. Aryavarta Sk. The ancient name for Northern India. A certain degree of ecstatic contemplation. The third stage of Hatha Yoga , one of the prescribed postures of meditation. Asat Sk. The unreal, or Prakriti, objective nature regarded as an illusion.

Nature, or the illusive shadow of its one true essence. Asathor Scand. The same as Thor. A god in the Eddas , who is almost as great as Odin. Asava Samkhaya Pali. A phenomenal knowledge of the finality of the stream of life and the series of re-births. One of the legendary peaks in the Teneriffe range. A great mountain in the traditions of Iran which corresponds in its allegorical meaning to the World-mountain, Meru.

Asch Metzareph Heb. The Cleansing Fire, a Kabbalistic treatise, treating of Alchemy and the relation between the metals and the planets. Ases Scand. The creators of the Dwarfs and Elves, the Elementals below men, in the Norse lays. Asgard Scand. It is evident that the gods of Asgard are the same as the Indian Suras gods and the Jotuns as the Asuras , both representing the conflicting powers of nature—beneficent and maleficent.

They are the prototypes also of the Greek gods and the Titans. Ash Heb. Fire, whether physical or symbolical fire; also found written in English as As , Aish and Esch. Ashen and Langhan Kolarian. Certain ceremonies for casting out evil spirits, akin to those of exorcism with the Christians, in use with the Kolarian tribes in India. Asherah Heb. Ashmog Zend.

Ashtadisa Sk. The eight-faced space. An imaginary division of space represented as an octagon and at other times as a dodecahedron. Ashta Siddhis Sk. The eight consummations in the practice of Hatha Yoga. The most ancient of the Hindu works on Magic. Though there is a claim that the entire work is in the hands of some Occultists, yet the Orientalists deem it lost.

A very few fragments of it are now extant, and even these are very much disfigured. Ash Yggdrasil Scand. It is ever green, for the Norns of Fate sprinkle It daily with the water of life from the fountain of Urd, which flows in Midgard. The dragon Nidhogg gnaws its roots incessantly, the dragon of Evil and Sin; but the Ash Yggdrasil cannot wither, until the Last Battle the Seventh Race in the Seventh Round is fought, when life, time, and the world will all vanish and disappear.

Asiras Sk. Elementals without heads; lit. Ask Scand. Together with the Embla alder the Ask was the tree from which the gods of Asgard created the first man. Plutarch says that the priests used to recite these words over persons who were possessed by devils. Priest-kings of Israel whose dynasty reigned over the Jews for years. Till the time of John Hyrcanus, they were Ascedeans Chasidim and Pharisees; but later they became Sadducees or Zadokites , asserters of Sacerdotal rule as contradistinguished from Rabbinical.

There were two Asokas in reality, according to the chronicles of Northern Buddhism, though the first Asoka—the grand father of the second, named by Prof. Moreover, according to the same source, the second Asoka had never followed the Brahmanical faith, but was a Buddhist born.

It was his grandsire who had been first converted to the new faith, after which he had a number of edicts inscribed on pillars and rocks, a custom followed also by his grandson. But it was the second Asoka who was the most zealous supporter of Buddhism; he, who maintained in his palace from 60 to 70, monks and priests, who erected 84, topes and stupas throughout India, reigned 36 years, and sent missions to Ceylon, and throughout the world. The sentiments are lofty and poetical, breathing tenderness for animals as well as men, and a lofty view of a king's mission with regard to his people, that might be followed with great success in the present age of cruel wars and barbarous vivisection.

Asomatous Gr. Asrama Sk. A sacred building, a monastery or hermitage for ascetic purposes. Every sect in India has its Ashrams. A masonic and mystic order founded by Hassan Sabah in Persia, in the eleventh century. They were simply Sufis and addicted, according to the tradition, to hascheesh-eating , in order to bring about celestial visions. The chief of the Order was called Sheik-el-Jebel, translated the ' Old Man of the Mountains ', and, as their Grand Master, he possessed power of life and death.

Assorus Chald. Assur Chald. A city in Assyria; the ancient seat of a library from which George Smith excavated the earliest known tablets, to which he assigns a date about b. Assurbanipal Chald. Assyrian Holy Scriptures. Assyrian Tree of Life. But the original Asherah was a pillar with seven branches on each side surmounted by a globular flower with three projecting rays, and no phallic stone, as the Jews made of it, but a metaphysical symbol.

Aster't Heb. Astarte, the Syrian goddess the consort of Adon, or Adonai. The ancient goddess of justice, whom the wickedness of men drove away from earth to heaven, wherein she now dwells as the constellation Virgo. The ethereal counterpart or shadow of man or animal. The reader must not confuse it with the Astral Soul , another name for the lower Manas, or Kama-Manas so-called, the reflection of the Higher Ego.

Astral Light Occult. The invisible region that surrounds our globe, as it does every other, and corresponding as the second Principle of Kosmos the third being Life, of which it is the vehicle to the Linga Sharira or the Astral Double in man. A subtle Essence visible only to a clairvoyant eye, and the lowest but one viz. This is so; but why not add that the Astral Light gives out nothing but what it has received; that it is the great terrestrial crucible, in which the vile emanations of the earth moral and physical upon which the Astral Light is fed, are all converted into their subtlest essence, and radiated back intensified, thus becoming epidemics—moral, psychic and physical.

Metaphysically, and in its spiritual, or occult sense, ether is a great deal more than is often imagined. In occult physics, and alchemy, it is well demonstrated to enclose within its shoreless waves not only Mr. Tyndall's ' promise and potency of every quality of life', but also the realization of the potency of every quality of spirit. Alchemists and Hermetists believe that their astral , or sidereal ether, besides the above properties of sulphur, and white and red magnesia, or magnes , is the anima mundi , the workshop of Nature and of all the Kosmos, spiritually, as well as physically.

The 'grand magisterium' asserts itself in the phenomenon of mesmerism, in the 'levitation' of human and inert objects; and may be called the ether from its spiritual aspect. The designation astral is ancient, and was used by some of the Neo-platonists, although it is claimed by some that the word was coined by the Martinists. Porphyry describes the celestial body which is always joined with the soul as 'immortal, luminous, and star-like'. The root of this word may be found, perhaps, in the Scythic Aist-aer —which means star, or the Assyrian Istar , which, according to Burnouf has the same sense.

Astrology Gr. The Science which defines the action of celestial bodies upon mundane affairs, and claims to foretell future events from the position of the stars. Its antiquity is such as to place it among the very earliest records of human learning. It remained for long ages a secret science in the East, and its final expression remains so to this day, its exoteric application having been brought to any degree of perfection in the West only during the period of time since Varaha Muhira wrote his book on Astrology some years ago.

Claudius Ptolemy, the famous geographer and mathematician, wrote his treatise Tetrabiblos. The science of Horoscopy is studied now chiefly under four heads: viz. The Egyptians and the Chaldees were among the most ancient votaries of Astrology, though their modes of reading the stars and the modern practices differ considerably. Two things are known: a that Thebes in Egypt claimed the honour of the invention of Astrology; and b that it was the Chaldees who taught that science to the other nations.

All tends, therefore, to corroborate the Egyptian claim. If later on the name of Astrologer fell into disrepute in Rome and elsewhere, it was owing to the fraud of those who wanted to make money by means of that which was part and parcel of the sacred Science of the Mysteries, and, ignorant of the latter, evolved a system based entirely upon mathematics, instead of on transcendental metaphysics and having the physical celestial bodies as its upadhi or material basis. Yet, all persecutions notwithstanding, the number of the adherents of Astrology among the most intellectual and scientific minds was always very great.

If Cardan and Kepler were among its ardent supporters, then its later votaries have nothing to blush for, even in its now imperfect and distorted form. As said in Isis Unveiled 1. In astrology and psychology one has to step beyond the visible world of matter, and enter into the domain of transcendent spirit. Astronomos Gr. The title given to the Initiate in the Seventh Degree of the reception of the Mysteries. In days of old, Astronomy was synonymous with Astrology; and the great Astrological Initiation took place in Egypt at Thebes, where the priests perfected, if they did not wholly invent the science.

Having passed through the degrees. See Isis Unveiled. Astronomy and Chemistry were inseparable in these studies. Asura Mazda Sk. In the Zend, Ahura Mazda. The same as Ormuzd or Mazdeo; the god of Zoroaster and the Parsis. Asuramaya Sk. An Atlantean astronomer, considered as a great magician and sorcerer, well-known in Sanskrit works. Asuras Sk. Exoterically, elementals and evil, gods—considered maleficent; demons, and no gods. But esoterically—the reverse. But in the Vedas the Suras have ever been connected with Surya , the sun, and regarded as inferior deities, devas. Aswattha Sk.

The Bo-tree , the tree of knowledge, ficus religiosa. Aswins Sk. Astronomically, they are asterisms. They were enthusiastically worshipped, as their epithets show. Atala Sk. One of the regions in the Hindu lokas , and one of the seven mountains; but esoterically Atala is on an astral plane, and was, once on a time, a real island upon this earth.

Atalanta Fugiens Lat. Atarpi Chald. The story is found on one of the most ancient Babylonian tablets, and relates to the sin of the world. In the words of G. I made them. Their wickedness I am angry at, their punishment shall not be small. In answer to Atarpi's prayer the god Hea announces his resolve to destroy the people he created, which he does finally by a deluge.

Atash Behram Zend. The sacred fire of the Parsis, preserved perpetually in their fire-temples. Atef Eg. Its two feathers represent the two truths— life and death. Athamaz Heb. The same as Adonis with the Greeks, the Jews having borrowed all their gods. Athanor Occult.

Atharva Veda Sk. The fourth Veda; lit. Athenagoras Gr. Athor Eg. The goddess of night. With the Visishtadwaitees, these are the Pitris, or Devas , who help the disembodied soul or Jiva in its transit from its dead body to Paramapadha. The ancestors of the Pharaohs and the forefathers of the Egyptians, according to some, and as the Esoteric Science teaches. Plato heard of this highly civilized people, the last remnant of which was submerged 9, years before his day, from Solon, who had it from the High Priests of Egypt. Atlantis Gr.

The continent that was submerged in the Atlantic and the Pacific Oceans according to the secret teachings and Plato. The Universal Spirit, the divine Monad, the 7th Principle, so-called, in the septenary constitution of man. The Supreme Soul. Atmabodha Sk. Atma-matrasu Sk. The highest form of spiritual knowledge; lit.


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Atri , Sons of Sk. Atyantika Sk. One of the four kinds of pralaya or dissolution. Atziluth Heb. Audlang Scand. The second heaven made by Deity above the field of Ida, in the Norse legends. The meaning of the allegory is evident. It is the precosmic union of the elements, of Spirit, or the creative Force, with Matter, cooled and still seething, which it forms in accordance with universal Will. Augoeides Gr. But Occultism makes of it something distinct from. It is a mystery. The Augoeides is the luminous divine radiation of the Ego which, when incarnated, is but its shadow—pure as it is yet.

This is explained in the Amshaspends and their Ferouers. Aum Sk. The sacred syllable; the triple-lettered unit; hence the trinity in one. Aura Gr. A subtle invisible essence or fluid that emanates from human and animal bodies and even things. Aurva Sk. An epithet of every Buddha: lit.

Avalokiteswara Sk. While popular fancy claims for Avalokiteswara many incarnations on earth, and sees in him, not very wrongly, the spiritual guide of every believer, the esoteric interpretation sees in him the Logos , both celestial and human. Divine incarnation.


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The descent of a god or some exalted Being, who has progressed beyond the necessity of Rebirths, into the body of a simple mortal. Krishna was an avatar of Vishnu. There are two kinds of avatars: those born from woman, and the parentless, the anupapadaka. Avebury or Abury. In Wiltshire are the remains of an ancient megalithic Serpent temple: according to the eminent antiquarian Stukeley, , there are traces of two circles of stones and two avenues; the whole has formed the representation of a serpent.

Avesta Zend. The sacred Scriptures of the Zoroastrians. All the Spirits of the Elements were subject to him, so says the legend, and it further tells us that owing to his knowledge of the Elixir of Life, he still lives, as an adept who will disclose himself to the profane at the end of a certain cycle. Ignorance which proceeds from, and is produced by the illusion of the Senses or Viparyaya.

A state: not necessarily after death only or between two births, for it can take place on earth as well. This is because Avitchi is another name for Myalba our earth and also a state to which some soulless men are condemned on this physical plane. Avyakta Sk. The unrevealed cause; indiscrete or undifferentiated; the opposite of Vyakta , the differentiated. The former is used of the unmanifested, and the latter of the manifested Deity, or of Brahma and Brahma. Ayana Sk. A period of time; two Ayanas complete a year, one being the period of the Sun's progress northward, and the other south ward in the ecliptic.

Ayin Heb. Aymar , Jacques. A famous Frenchman who had great success in the use of the Divining Rod about the end of the 17th century; he was often employed in detecting criminals; two M. D's of the University of Paris,. Chauvin and Garnier reported on the reality of his powers. See Colquhoun on Magic. Azareksh Zend. A place celebrated for a fire-temple of the Zoroastrians and Magi during the time of Alexander the Great. Azazel Heb. Azhi-Dahaka Zend. Aziluth Heb.

The name for the world of the Sephiroth, called the world of Emanations Olam Aziluth. It is the great and the highest prototype of the other worlds. The globes A, Z, of our terrestial chain are in Aziluth. See Secret Doctrine. Azoth Alch. The creative principle in Nature, the grosser portion of which is stored in the Astral Light. Alpha and Omega, the First and the Last, the beginning and ending of all active existence; the Logos, hence with the Christians Christ.

See Rev. Its symbol is a house , the form of Beth , the letter itself indicating a dwelling, a shed or a shelter. The Hebrew value as a numeral is two. Joined with its predecessor, it forms the word Ab , the root of 'father', Master, one in authority, and it has the Kabalistical distinction of being the first letter in the Sacred Volume of the Law. The divine name connected with this letter is Bakhour. Baal Chald. Baal or Adon Adonai was a phallic god. Kings xviii. Typhon, called Set, who was a great god in Egypt during the early dynasties, is an aspect of Baal and Ammon as also of Siva, Jehovah and other gods.

Baal is the all devouring Sun, in one sense, the fiery Moloch. Bacchus Gr. Exoterically and superficially the god of wine and the vintage, and of licentiousness and joy; but the esoteric meaning of this personification is more abstruse and philosophical. All these were put to death, mourned for, and restored to life. Bacchus is murdered and his mother collects the fragments of his lacerated body as Isis does those of Osiris, and so on.

Dionysos Iacchus, torn to shreds by the Titans, Osiris, Krishna, all descended into Hades and returned again. Bacon, Roger. A Franciscan monk, famous as an adept in Alchemy and Magic Arts. Lived in the thirteenth century in England. He believed in the philosopher's stone in the way all the adepts of Occultism believe in it; and also in philosophical astrology. He is accused of having made a head of bronze which having an acoustic apparatus hidden in it, seemed to utter oracles which were words spoken by Bacon himself in another room. Baddha Sk.

Bagh-bog Slavon. Bahak-Zivo Gn. The Nazarenes were an early semi-Christian sect. Bal Heb. Bala Sk. Baldur Scand. Such was the birth-song chanted to Baldur who resurrects as Wali, the spring Sun. The Christmas misletoe is probably a reminiscence of the mistletoe that killed the Northern God of Goodness. Bamboo Books. Most ancient and certainly pre-historic works in Chinese containing the antediluvian records of the Annals of China.

They were found in the tomb of King Seang of Wai, who died b. Bandha Sk. Bondage; life on this earth; from the same root as Baddha. Baphomet Gr. The androgyne goat of Mendes. See Secret Doctrine , I. According to the Western, and especially the French Kabalists, the Templars were accused of worshipping Baphomet, and Jacques de Molay, the Grand Master of the Templars, with all his brother-Masons, suffered death in consequence. Von Hammer must be right. It was a Hermetico Kabalistic symbol, but the whole story as invented by the Clergy was false.

Baptism Gr. This rite was hoary with age when it was adopted by the Chrestians of the earliest centuries. Baptism belonged to the earliest Chaldeo-Akkadian theurgy; was religiously practised in the nocturnal ceremonies in the Pyramids where we see to this day the font in the shape of the sarcophagus; was known to take place during the Eleusinian mysteries in the sacred temple lakes, and is practised even now by the descendants of the ancient Sabians.

Their religion is one of multiplied baptisms, of seven purifications in the name of the seven planetary. Bardesanes or Bardaisan. He was a great astrologer following the Eastern Occult System. The fact is that most of his teachings, however much they may have been altered by his numerous Gnostic followers, can be traced to Indian philosophy, and still more to the Occult teachings of the Secret System.

This is Karma, most evidently, which does not preclude at all free-will. Hippolytus makes him a representative of the Eastern School. Speaking of Baptism, Bardesanes is made to say loc. This points plainly to the doctrine of re-incarnation. See Treatise, found in its. Syriac original, and published with English translation in by Dr. Cureton, Spicileg. Bardesanian System. It is called by some a Kabala within the Kabala; a religion or sect the esotericism of which is given out in names and allegories entirely sui-generis.

A very old Gnostic system. This codex has been translated into Latin. Yet the names are identical in the two systems. Baresma Zend. A plant used by Mobeds Parsi priests in the fire-temples, wherein consecrated bundles of it are kept. Barhishad Sk. Esoterically the Pitris who evolved their shadows or chhayas to make there-with the first man. Basileus Gr. The Archon or Chief who had the outer super-vision during the Eleusinian Mysteries. Basilidean System. Named after Basilides; the Founder of one of the most philosophical gnostic sects.

And yet on the authority of St. Jerome himself, who describes with indignation what he had found in the only genuine Hebrew copy of the Gospel of Matthew See Isis Unv. His 24 vols. Useless to say that these gospels were not our present Gospels. Thus, truth was ever crushed. Bassantin , James. A Scotch astrologer. He lived in the 16th century and is said to have predicted to Sir Robert Melville, in , the death and all the events connected therewith of Mary, the unfortunate Queen of Scots. Bath Kol Heb. Daughter of the Voice: the Divine afflatus, or inspiration, by which the prophets of Israel were inspired as by a voice from Heaven and the Mercy-Seat.

In Latin Filia Vocis. Batoo Eg. The first man in Egyptian folk-lore. Noum , the heavenly artist, creates a beautiful girl—the original of the Grecian Pandora—and sends her to Batoo, after which the happiness of the first man is destroyed. Batria Eg. According to tradition, the wife of the Pharaoh and the teacher of Moses.



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